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Food Safety

Food Safety. Preventing Foodborne Illness. What is foodborne illness?. A foodborne illness is a disease that is transmitted to humans by food. Food Infection vs. Food Intoxication. Food Infection – the microorganism itself grows inside your body and is the main source of your symptoms

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Food Safety

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  1. Food Safety Preventing Foodborne Illness

  2. What is foodborne illness? A foodborne illness is a disease that is transmitted to humans by food.

  3. Food Infection vs. Food Intoxication • Food Infection – the microorganism itself grows inside your body and is the main source of your symptoms • Most common - Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, Norwalk, Trichinosis • Food Intoxication – a chemical or natural toxin (often a by product of the bacteria present in food) causes your symptoms or illness. • Most common – Staphylococcus Aureus, Escherichia coli 0157, Clostridium Perfringens and Clostridium Botulinum

  4. High Protein Foods • Moist, high-protein, and/or low acid foods are potentially dangerous. • High protein foods consist of milk or milk products, eggs, meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, shrimp, lobster, crab.

  5. Other possible sources include… • Potatoes, tofu and other soy protein foods, raw seed sprouts such as alfalfa or bean sprouts, green leafy vegetables, berries and tomatoes also pose a hazard. • These foods can support rapid growth of infectious or disease-causing microorganisms.

  6. Who is at risk? • Everyone, but infants, young children, pregnant women, the elderly, and people who are chronically ill have a greater risk of developing a foodborne illness because their immune systems may not be able to fight off the bacteria and viruses that cause the illness. • Those at greater risk should avoid consuming potentially hazardous foods that are raw or not fully cooked.

  7. How does food become hazardous? • Food becomes hazardous by contamination. Contamination is the unintended presence of harmful substances or microorganisms in food. Food can become contaminated from chemical, physical or biological sources.

  8. Chemical hazards • Chemical hazards include substances such as cleaning solutions and sanitizers.

  9. Physical hazards • Physical hazards are foreign particles, like glass, metal, or fingernails.

  10. Biological hazards • Biological hazards come mainly from microorganisms including bacteria, viruses and parasites.

  11. What is Cross-contamination? • Cross-contamination is the transportation of harmful substances to food by: • Hands that touch raw foods, such as chicken, then touch food that will not be cooked, like salad ingredients. • Surfaces, like cutting boards or cleaning cloths, that touch raw foods, are not cleaned and sanitized, then touch ready-to-eat food. • Raw or contaminated foods that touch or drip fluids on cooked or ready-to-eat foods.

  12. What should you know about microorganisms? • Microorganisms are everywhere. You may not see, taste, or smell them, but they hide on your body, in the air, on kitchen counters and utensils, and in food. The main microorganisms are viruses, parasites, fungi and bacteria.

  13. Viruses • Viruses are the tiniest, and probably the simplest, form of life. • They are not able to reproduce outside a living cell yet can survive for a period of time even on inanimate objects, such as door handles, pencils, tabletops, backpacks, etc.

  14. Some viruses are extremely resistant to heat and cold. • The food is mainly a transportation device to get from one host to another. • Hepatitis A and norovirus have been identified as the cause of many foodborne illness outbreaks.

  15. Parasites • Parasites need to live on or in a host to survive. • Examples of parasites that may contaminate food or water are Trichinella spiralis (trichinosis) that affects pork and Anisakis roundworm that affects fish.

  16. Fungi • Fungi can be microscopic or as big as a giant mushroom. • Fungi are found in the air, soil, plants, animals, water, and some food. • Molds and yeast are fungi. Molds may produce dangerous toxins in food. Yeast development in foods will affect quality.

  17. What is the greatest threat to food safety? • Of all the microorganisms, bacteria are the greatest threat to food safety. • Bacteria are single-celled, living organisms that can grow quickly at favorable temperatures.

  18. Bad Bacteria • Some bacteria are infectious disease-causing agents called pathogens, that use the nutrients found in potentially hazardous foods to multiply. • Some bacteria are not infectious on their own, but when they multiply in potentially hazardous food, they eject toxins that poison humans when the food is eaten.

  19. Under the right conditions, bacteria can double every 10 to 30 minutes. A single bacterium will double with each division—two become four, four become eight, and so on. A single cell can become billions in 10 to 12 hours.

  20. Some Bacteria Can Be Good • Some bacteria are useful. We use them to make foods like cheese, buttermilk, sauerkraut, pickles, and yogurt.

  21. How Does Food Become Contaminated? • Food handling practices are risky when they allow harmful bacteria to contaminate and grow in food. • If you touch a food during preparation, you may transfer several thousand bacteria to its surface.

  22. Keep Hot Foods Hot and Cold Foods Cold! • Bacteria grow fastest in the temperature range between 40°F and 140°F • This is known as the Temperature Danger Zone.

  23. Handle Food Safely! • Bacteria are found on the hair, skin, mouth, nose and in the throat of healthy people. • According to one estimate, nearly 50 percent of healthy food handlers carry disease agents that can be transmitted by food.

  24. The most important tool you have to prevent foodborne illness is good personal hygiene. • Personal hygiene is the way a person maintains their health, appearance and cleanliness. • A cough or sneeze can transmit thousands of microorganisms that may cause disease.

  25. Wash your hands often! • Your hands can be the most potentially dangerous serving equipment you use. • Scratching your scalp, running your fingers through your hair, or touching a pimple can cause the transmission of pathogenic microorganismsinto food.

  26. Symptoms of Foodborne Illness • Symptoms of foodborne illnesses may take hours or even days to appear. • Most common symptoms include: abdominal cramps, headache, vomiting, diarrhea (may be bloody), fever, and in some cases death. • Since the symptoms are so similar to the flu, some people may not realize they have a foodborne illness.

  27. Review • Foodborne illnesses are caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. • Every person is at risk of foodborne illness. • May be serious for very young, very old, people with long term illness • Reaction may occur in a few hours or up to several days after exposure • Foodborne Illnesses can be preventable Symptoms • Abdominal cramps, headache, vomiting, diarrhea (may be bloody), fever, death.

  28. Journal – Do think the food you eat at home is safe? What about the food you eat in restaurants? Why or why not? What can you do to help keep it safe to eat?

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