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Food Safety Why All The Fuss?
QFO • You are about to become a QFO with the knowledge you are about to learn!!!! • Qualified • Food • Operator • Every restaurant needs to have at least one QFO on premise at all times during preparation and service of food!
Practice strict personal hygiene Monitor time and temperature Keep raw products and ready-to-eat foods separate Avoid cross-contamination during handling Safe Foodhandling
Cook to required minimal internal temperatures (chicken 165F • Hold hot foods at 140ºF or above; cold foods at 41ºF or below (New Federal is 41-135F) • Cool cooked foods properly • Reheat to internal temperature of 165ºF (don’t use the hotline because it isn’t powerful enough to heat the food quickly)
New Challenges Present New Opportunities The food industry is one of America’s largest enterprises. It employs about one-quarter of the nation’s workforce and produces 20% of America’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Quick Service Supermarkets Full Service Delicatessens Employee Feeding Transportation Schools Caterers Hospitals Convenience Stores Lodging Child Care College/University Elder Care Military Bases Prisons/Jails Nursing Homes Bars Contract Services Stadium Concessions
Why should I be concerned? • Customer opinion surveys show that cleanliness and food quality are the top two reasons people use when choosing a place to eat and stop for food. • Consumers expect their food to taste good and notmake them sick. • It is the responsibility of every food establishment owner, manager, and employee to prepare and serve safe and wholesome food and preserve their clients’ confidence.
Foodborne IllnessHow and Why How and Why: • People get sick because of food mishandling • Food is exposed to unsafe temperatures • Food is handled by infected food handlers who practice poor personal hygiene. • Food is exposed to cross contamination
Safe Food Illness prevention depends on cautious food handling • Follow the safe food handling rules: • Pay attention to time. • Wash your hands • Wash-Rinse-Sanitize • Use safe temperatures 5. Keep cold foods cold (and) 6. hot foods hot
The Problem: Foodborne Illness • Foodborne Illness is a disease caused by the consumption of contaminated food. • A Foodborne disease outbreak is defined as an incident in which two or more people experience a similar illness after eating a common food. • The health department comes in an does a full blown CSI investigation.
Infection Is caused by eating food that contains living disease causing microorganisms. Intoxication Is caused by eating food that contains harmful chemical or toxin produced by bacteria or other source.
Sources of Contamination Food Handlers Water Soil FOOD Ingredients Food Contact Surfaces Animals, Rodents,Insects Air Packaging Materials
Safe Food Handling It is your responsibility to handle food safely during • Preparation • Cooking • Cooling • Reheating
Temperature Abuse Temperature abuse is a major cause of foodborne illness outbreaks Calibrate Thermometers
Microorganisms That Can ContaminateFood and Cause Foodborne Illness Bacteria Viruses Parasites Fungi
Living, single-celled • Carried by food, water, humans and insects • Needs locomotion • Can reproduce rapidly • Some survive freezing • Some form spores • Some spoil food; others cause disease • Some cause illness by producing toxins
Bacterial Growth especially in high protein foods such as meat, dairy and eggs
Barriers That Control the Growthof Microorganisms Make the foodmore acidic Raise or lowerthe temperature of the food Lessen the time in the TDZ Lower the water activity
Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by Bacteria • Botulism • Campylobacteriosis • E. coli O157:H7 EHEC • Gastroenteritis • Salmonellosis • Shigellosis • Listeriosis • Staphyloccocal food poisoning • Clostridium perfringens Enteritis
Milk and milk products must be kept refrigerated unless they are ultra pasteurized (little cream cups you see in some restaurants on the tables) These have been pasteurized to kill the listeria bacteria then pasteurized again at a higher temperature to make them shelf stable These foods are Sous Vide- reduced oxygen or replace it with other gasses to allow for longer shelf life
Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by Viruses • Hepatitis A • Norwalk Virus Gastroenteritis
Can’t reproduce outside a living cell • Usually contaminate food through poor personal hygiene • May survive freezing and cooking • Contaminate food and water
Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by Parasites • Trichinosis (mostly found in pork products) • Toxoplasmosis
Cross-Contamination • Cross-contamination is the process by which one item, such as your finger or a cutting board, becomes contaminated and then contaminates food. • Reducing cross-contamination • Personal cleanliness • Dish and equipment cleanliness • Pest management
Cross-Contamination Methods for Preventing Cross-Contamination During Preparation • Prepare raw meat separately from cooked/ready-to-eat foods. • Assign specific equipment for each food • Use specific containers for each food • Clean and sanitize food-contact surfaces after each task • Use disposable or color-coded cleaning cloths • Consider using gloves for food preparation and service • Practice good personal hygiene
Key Preparation Practices • Prepare food in small batches • Store prepared foods quickly • Chill ingredients prior to use (chill tuna can and mayo before mixing them) • Use properly cooked/cooled leftover meats • Keep shell eggs at 41ºF (5ºC) or below until use (don’t pool them together in one batch) • Wash fruits/vegetables before cutting, combining, and cooking
Cooking Foods • Cooking food to required minimum internal temperatures kills microorganisms. • Cooking will not destroy spores or toxins • Using a thermometer will determine that food has been cooked properly • Where do you put a thermometer to check the food?
Chemical Contaminants • Chemical hazards include contamination with (1) residual chemicals, food service chemicals, and toxic metals • You cannot use empty clean chemical containers to store food
Personal Hygiene • Do not work if you have any communicable diseases or infections (although if a person who is HIV positive can still work with food) • Bathe or shower daily • Wear clean uniforms • Keep hair clean, and use hair restraints • Wash your hands often even after coming back from the bathroom because you have touched things on the way back. • Cover coughs and sneezes, then wash hands • Keep fingernails clean and short. Don’t wear nail polish • Cover cuts and sores with clean bandages
Hand washing • The water in the hand washing sink should be 110F • Wash your hands for 30 seconds minimum with hot soapy water rubbing as you go…..Sing the happy birthday song • Hand sanitizer does not count for washing your hands. • You must wash then use sanitizer
Food Storage • Four hour rule: if a food remains in the danger zone for more than four hours cumulatively, it is considered unsafe and must be thrown away. • Receiving (rotate your food) • FIFO..first in first out • Dry storage (1 foot off the ground) • Freezer storage • Refrigerator storage • Hot food holding
Receiving • Safe food handling begins the moment food is delivered. What does a dented or bulging can indicate? • Inspect all products thoroughly. Take the temperature of your eggs and milk when they are delivered. • Reject deliveries that do not meet standards. (what do you do if cheese has mold on it?) • Label and date all foods. (Label Date Refrigerater!!!!) • Store immediately.
Food Handling and Preparation • Be sure to wash all fruits and vegetables before preparing them…remember we cannot see bacteria so we assume it is always present! • Please wash all mushrooms as well as they are grown in the soil. Many chefs don’t wash them because they don’t want them to suck up the moisture.
Minimum Safe Internal Temperatures • Fish, seafood, veal, lamb, cured or raw pork, raw shell eggs for immediate service: 145°F • Ground beef: 155°F • Poultry, wild game, stuffed fish, stuffed meat, poultry, or pasta: 165°F
Cleaning and Sanitizing Equipment: Dishwashing by hand in the three bay sink • The process: • Scrape and rinse • Wash in hot soapy water • Rinse • Sanitize (75 F for 1 minute in 50-100 ppm for one minute) • Drain and air dry
Mechanical Dishwashing$5,000 piece of equipment • The process: • - Check to see if the soap is adequate • Scrape and rinse • Rack dishes • Run for full cycle (the rinse water sanitizes the dishes at 180F) • Inspect for cleanliness and air dry
Rodent and Insect Control • Rats, mice, flies, and cockroaches can spread disease to food and contact surfaces. The four basic ways to prevent them are: • Build them out • Eliminate harborage and breeding places • Eliminate their food supply • Exterminate
The HACCP System • Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points • 3 main goals are 1. To protect people from FBI 2. Keep employees and customers returning to your establishment 3. Prevent food safety errors
The Steps of the HACCP System • Assess hazards • Identify critical control points • Set up standards or limits for critical control points • Set up procedures for monitoring critical control points • Establish corrective actions • Set up a record-keeping system • Verify that the system is working
The Flow of Food • Receiving raw ingredients • Storing raw ingredients • Preparing ingredients • Cooking • Holding and serving • Cooling and storing leftovers • Reheating, holding, and storing leftovers
Ready to eat foods • Eggs • Dairy • Fish • Beef • Chicken • All raw meat on sheet pans or in hotel pans to prevent dripping
Critical Control Points • CCP’s are the points in the food handling process you can prevent or lessen risk of hazards
One last random thought…… • Why do you have to get a new plate at a buffet? • Be sure to handle your food and yourself properly to prevent harming anyone …that includes yourself!!!!!!