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Food Safety

Provided Courtesy of RD411.com Where health care professionals go for information. Food Safety. Review Date 2/11 G-1504. Areas of Discussion. Foodborne illness Food contamination Personal hygiene Preparing, cooking, and serving foods Receiving and storing foods Cleaning and sanitizing.

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Food Safety

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  1. Provided Courtesy of RD411.com Where health care professionals gofor information Food Safety Review Date 2/11 G-1504

  2. Areas of Discussion • Foodborne illness • Food contamination • Personal hygiene • Preparing, cooking, and serving foods • Receiving and storing foods • Cleaning and sanitizing

  3. Foodborne Illness

  4. Microorganisms • The major cause of a foodborne illness • You cannot feel, see, or taste • Very quick to multiply in potentially hazardous foods • Most of the foods we eat contain one or more type of microorganism

  5. Milk, milk products Shelled eggs Sprouts, raw seeds Melons Soy-protein foods Corn, rice, potatoes, peas Fish Shellfish Meat—beef, pork, lamb Poultry Cooked rice, beans, other heat-treated plant foods Potentially Hazardous Foods Foods capable of supporting the rapid and progressive growth of harmful microorganisms:

  6. Types of Microorganisms • Bacteria • Virus • Parasite • Fungus • Two groups of food contaminates: • Pathogen (cannot see, smell, or taste) • Spoilage (can see, smell, or taste)

  7. How Do Microorganisms Grow? FAT TOM • Food (potentially hazardous foods) • Acid (pH slightly acidic or neutral) • Temperature (danger zone: 41˚F135˚F) • Time (less than 4 hours) • Oxygen (presence of) • Moisture (water helps growth)

  8. Foodborne Illness • Caused by bacteria: • — Salmonellosis • — Shigellosis • — Vibrio gastroenteritis • — Hemorrhagic colitis • — Staphylococcal gastroenteritis • — Botulism • Caused by virus: • — Hepatitis A

  9. Restrictions From Work • If you or a worker is experiencing: • Sore throat • Runny nose • Diarrhea • Fever • Vomiting • BEST PRACTICE IS TO GO HOME

  10. Food Contamination

  11. Cross Contamination • A food service worker handling the food contact area of a plate or glass • An employee preparing cooked food where raw food was without properly cleaning and sanitizing the area first

  12. Types of Hazardous Substances • Physical: • Hair, bandages, dirt, metal items, and fingernails • Biological: • Bacteria, viruses, parasites, and toxins • Chemical: • Cleaning products, toxic metal residue, and pesticides

  13. Ways Food Can Become Contaminated • Poor personal hygiene: • Leading cause of foodborne illnesses • Improper hand washing • Dirty work clothes • Temperature and time abuse: • 41˚F135˚F is the danger zone • No more than 4 hours in the danger zone • Cleaning and sanitizing

  14. Personal Hygiene

  15. Basics of Good Hygiene • Good personal grooming • Clean clothes • Proper use of aprons • Hair restraints • No jewelry • Trimmed and clean fingernails

  16. Proper Hand Washing • Rinse hands in warm water (about 105˚F) • Apply hand soap • Scrub hands and exposed arms for 20 seconds—do not forget between fingers and under rings • Rinse hands • Use a single-serve towel or air dryer • Apply hand sanitizer (optional)

  17. Proper Hand Washing (cont’d) • Never wash your hands in a prep sink or dish-washing sink • Wash hands in a designated hand-washing station • Do not substitute hand sanitizer for proper hand washing, but you can use hand sanitizer after hand washing

  18. When to Wash Hands • After using the bathroom • After touching bare body parts • After coughing, sneezing, or using tissues • After eating, drinking, or smoking • After handling soiled equipment or utensils • After food preparation • After clearing table or dishes • After removing or disposing of trash

  19. Proper Use of Gloves • Gloves can contaminate as well; do not rely on gloves to feel you are safe • Change gloves: • After completing a task and beginning a new task • If they become dirty • After handing raw meat, poultry, or fish • Before handling ready-to-eat or cooked food

  20. Proper Care of Cuts, Burns, Sores, Infections • Report to supervisor • Cover with a clean, dry bandage • May need reassigned to nonfood contact duties • Wash each time you put on a new bandage

  21. Preparing, Cooking, and Serving Foods

  22. Four Methods of Thawing Foods • In refrigerator at 41˚F or lower, and on the bottom shelf and in a container that will hold thawing liquid • Under potable (drinking) running water that is 70˚F or lower • In the microwave, if cooking food immediately • During the regular cooking process

  23. Temperature Danger Zone • 41˚F135˚F* • Must either cook or store below 41˚F within 4 hours *Some states require 140˚F. Check with your local health department.

  24. Temperature Danger Zone (cont’d) • Cold foods: 41˚F or lower • Hot foods*: 135˚F or higher *Some states require 140˚F for hot holding. Check with your local health department.

  25. Proper Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature • Poultry: 165˚F for 15 seconds • Ground meats: 155˚F for 15 seconds • Pork and beef (steak or chops): 145˚F for 15 seconds • Fish: 145˚F for 15 seconds • Reheat all food to an internal temperature of 165˚F

  26. Serving Food Properly • Hold plates by the bottom or at the edge: • Never touch the food-contact surface • Hold cups by bottom or handle: • Never put fingers on the rim of the glass • Never put fingers inside the glass • Hold silverware by the handle: • Never touch the food-contact surface

  27. Serving Food Properly (cont’d) • Use long-handled utensils, such as tongs or scoops, for one food only • Never allow your hands to come in contact with the food • Scoop ice with proper utensil, not a cup

  28. Cooling Foods • Two-stage method of cooling: • Stage 1: Cool food from 135˚F to 70˚F within 2 hours • Stage 2: Cool food from 70˚F to 41˚F within 4 hours • Methods to cool food: • Ice bath • Divide food in shallow pans, then refrigerate • Blast chiller

  29. Receiving and Storing Foods

  30. Accepting and Rejecting Food Delivery • Use the senses (smell, sight, and touch) when inspecting a food delivery • Reject food when you notice: • Signs of pests • Ice crystals in box or package of food • Torn, broken, or damaged boxes, packages, or cans • Expiration/use-by date has passed • Dry foods are damp

  31. Receiving Temperature of Foods • Meat: 41˚F or lower • Poultry: 41˚F or lower • Fish: 41˚F or lower • Eggs: Air temperature of 45˚F or lower • Dairy products: 41˚F or lower • Shellfish: 45˚F or lower and alive • Packaged food: 41˚F or lower • Produce: No temperature requirements

  32. Proper Use of a Thermometer • Clean and sanitize stem of thermometer prior to each use with alcohol • Insert thermometer into the thickest part of the food • Do not allow thermometer to touch the base of the pan

  33. Proper Use of a Thermometer (cont’d) • Wait a minimum of 15 seconds after the needle stops moving to take the temperature reading • Wipe thermometer stem in between foods

  34. Calibration of a Bimetallic-Stemmed Thermometer • Fill a container with ice and add drinkable water • Place thermometer stem into ice water making sure it is submerged • Allow 30 seconds from the time the needle stops moving

  35. Calibration of a Bimetallic-Stemmed Thermometer (cont’d) • Locate adjusting nut and hold securely • Rotate until needle reads 32˚F (do not remove thermometer from water while adjusting)

  36. Storage of Food • FIFO—first in, first out • Store foods in original packaging, whenever possible • Clearly label all foods with date

  37. Storage of Food (cont’d) • Do not overload shelves or store food on floors or against walls • Store all foods a minimum of 6ˮ above the floor on clean shelves or racks • Store food only in protected areas, never in restrooms or utility rooms

  38. Cleaning and Sanitizing

  39. Definitions • Cleaning: Involves the removal of food, residues, dirt, and grease • Sanitizing: Reduces harmful microorganisms to a level that is safe through the use of a chemical-sanitizing solution

  40. Use a Three-Step Process • Clean • Rinse • Sanitize

  41. Cleaning • Use cleaning agents that remove food, soil, and stains • Examples: Rinsing dishes, sweeping the floor, and removing dust from overhead vents • Clean entire kitchen on a regular basis

  42. Sanitizing • Use high heat or chemical sanitizers • Must sanitize anything that comes in contact with food • Sanitize all dishes, pots and pans, utensils, knives, and worktables after each use or every 4 hours • Clean and sanitize knives and utensils when moving from one food item to another

  43. Dish Machine • Use manufacturer’s instruction for heat and/or chemical sanitizing • Have test strips available to assure proper concentration of sanitizer, if using chemical sanitizing • Keep temperature logs of dishwasher temperatures at each shift

  44. Pot Sink • Use chemical sanitizers according to manufacturer’s instructions • Keep test strips available to test for proper concentration, if using chemical sanitizer • Keep temperature logs available and record each shift

  45. Sanitizing Work Surfaces • Use facility-approved sanitizing solution in spray bottles • Have test strips available to test sanitizer concentration • Use clean clothes when sanitizing • Sanitize prep sinks after each use

  46. Preventing Foodborne Illness • Purchase, store, and prepare food carefully • Have thermometers available; keep them calibrated and use them • Practice good personal hygiene • Clean and sanitize regularly

  47. Reference • National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Serve Safe Essentials. 5th ed. Chicago, IL: National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation; 2008.

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