Vitamins and Minerals Fall 2013 - Foods
What are vitamins? • Complex substances in food. • Found in a wide range of food (more colorful = more vitamins and minerals) • Don’t supply any energy • Not part of any body structure • Support many chemical reactions • If a deficiency body malfunctions can occur • Anti-oxidants – protect body cells and the immune system from damage that can be done by chemicals in the air
Water-Soluble Vitamins • Dissolve in water and pass easily into the bloodstream. • Stay in your bloodstream for a very short amount of time, so need to replenish often. • Body doesn’t story water-soluble vitamins – excretes them through the urine • Consuming LARGE amounts is NOT a good idea
Vitamin C • Water-soluble vitamin • Helps maintain healthy capillaries, bones, skin, and teeth. • The enzyme that forms and takes care of collagen depends on vitamin C. • Lack of vitamin C can lead to a poor appetite, weakness, bruising, sore joints • Scurvy – severe lack of vitamin C • Sailors = limey’s
Thiamin (b1) • Helps turn carbs into energy. • Needed for muscle coordination and healthy nervous system. • Lack of Thiamin can lead to nausea, apathy, loss of appetite. • Should get all the thiamin needed by eating a variety of foods.
Riboflavin (b2) • Helps the body release energy from carbs, fats, and proteins. • Contributes to body growth and red cell production. • Deficiency is rare, but symptoms are light sensitivity, gritty eyes, sore tongue, mouth, and lip sores, and dry flaky skin.
Niacin (b3) • Helps release energy from carbs, fats, and proteins. • Needed for healthy nervous system and mucous membranes. • Lack of niacin can lead to Pellagra. • Pellagra = skin lesions, mental and digestive problems. • Really common problem in the 1900’s due to poor diets
Folate (Folic Acid) • Teams with vitamin B2 to help build red blood cells and form genetic material. • Helps the body use protein and may protect against heart disease. • Very important in helping prevent birth defects that damage the brain and spinal cord. • Added to most grain products. • Found in leafy green vegetables.
Fat-Soluble Vitamins • Absorbed and transported by fat. • A,D,E and K. (Ants Don’t Eat Kangaroos) • Extra fat soluble vitamins are stored in the liver • Too many stored vitamins can be harmful to the body. • BE VERY CAREFUL WITH SUPPLEMENTS!!!!
Vitamin A • Promotes good vision and helps maintain tissues and skin. • Supports reproduction and growth. • Deficiencies can cause rough, scaly skin and infections in the respiratory tract. • Deficiency is a serious problem in developing countries. • Causes night blindness and total blindness in children. • Found in vegetables and fruits.
Vitamin D • Partners with Calcium to maintain bone health. • Considered the “Sunshine Vitamin” • The body can make it’s own vitamin D with the help of sunshine. • Fortified milk also contains large amounts of Vitamin D. • Lack of vitamin D can cause Ricketts.
Vitamins E and K • Vitamin E is an antioxidant it protects cells from oxidation damage especially in the lungs. • Deficiency is rare because it is found in many foods. • Vitamin K helps with the clotting of blood. • With a healthy diet deficiency is very rare.
Minerals - Calcium • Helps regulate blood clotting, nerve activity, and many other blood processes. • Essential for keeping your bones strong. • Lack of calcium can lead to osteoporosis which causes bones to become weak and fragile. • Bone mass builds during childhood, so it is important to remember to get enough calcium now.
Phosphorus and Magnesium • Phosphorus works with calcium to build strong bones and teeth. • Releases energy from carbs, fats, and proteins. • Magnesium helps build bones and make proteins. • Helps nerves and muscles work normally. • Deficiencies are very uncommon in both phosphorus and magnesium.
Sodium, Chloride, and Potassium • Helps control osmosis. • This combination helps form electrolytes. • Sodium helps with muscle and nerve action, also helps regulate blood pressure. • Chloride helps transmit nerve signals. • Excess of sodium is very common. • Can lead to hypertension or high blood pressure.
Trace Minerals • Need these in a small amount but still very important. • Iron – essential for making hemoglobin. Anemia can occur if there is a deficiency. • Iodine – stored in the thyroid gland. Produces substances needed for growth and development. • Zinc – helps enzymes do their work and aids the immune system.