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Vitamins and Minerals

Vitamins and Minerals

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Vitamins and Minerals

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  1. Vitamins and Minerals NAPNES Guidelines Presented by Laura Zdancewicz MSN, CRNP

  2. Vitamins and MineralsDefinition • Vitamin • Organic molecules needed in small amounts • To carry out normal body metabolism • Occur naturally in both plant and animal food • Minerals • Inorganic compounds that are essential nutrients • Needed for a variety of physiologic functions • Composed of various metallic and nonmetallic elements • Chemically combined with ionic bonds

  3. Indications for vitamins and mineral supplements include: • Inadequate diet • Anorexia • Weight reduction or other special diets • Illness: • Alcoholism • Poor eating habits. • Malabsorption syndromes • Chronic gastrointestinal disorders or surgery that result in chronic diarrhea.

  4. Indications (cont.) • Increased need for certain nutrients • Pregnancy and lactation • Iron and Calcium. • Infants • Adolescence • Debilitation • Illness • Unusual physical activity • Postmenopausal women (calcium).

  5. Indications (cont.) • Deficiencies due to medication interactions • Example • Potassium deficiency • Diuretic use

  6. The RDA • Recommended Dietary Allowances • Includes • Amount from foods consumed • Supplements

  7. Vitamins

  8. Fat-Soluble Vitamins • Vitamin A • Vitamin D • Vitamin E • Vitamin K

  9. Vitamin A( Retinol, Retinal, Beta Carotene) • Functions: • Dim light vision • Maintenance of mucous membranes • Growth and development of bones • Healing of wounds • Resistance to infection • Beta carotene is an antioxidant • Blocks oxygen to combine with nutrient molecules ( Fat, Protein ).

  10. Vitamin A (cont.) • Deficiency: • Night Blindness • Xerophthalmia • Dry Cornea. • Bone growth ceases • Toxicity: • Irritability, lethargy • Joint pain, myalgia, headache • Stunted growth, fetal malformations • Jaundice, nausea, diarrhea • Dry skin and hair

  11. Vitamin A (cont.) • Food Sources: • Oily saltwater fish • Whole milk • Butter • Cream • Cod liver oil • Dark green leafy vegetables • Deep yellow or orange fruit • Fortified margarine

  12. Vitamin D (Calciferol, Cholecalciferol, Ergocalciferol) • Functions: • Healthy bones and teeth • Muscle function • Deficiency: • Rickets • Osteomalacia • Poorly developed teeth • Muscle spasms

  13. Vitamin D (cont.) • Toxicity • Hypercalcemia: • Kidney stones, kidney damage • Muscle/bone pain • GI distress • Food Sources: • Fish oils • Salmon, herring, mackerel, sardines • Fortified milk • Fortified cereals

  14. Vitamin E (tocopherol) • Functions: • Antioxidant • Deficiency: • Destruction of RBCs, muscle weakness • Toxicity: • Prolonged bleeding time • Food Sources: • Meat, poultry eggs • Vegetable oils • Seeds, nuts

  15. Vitamin K (Phytonadione) • Functions: • Blood clotting • Deficiency: • Prolonged blood clotting time • Toxicity: • Jaundice in infants • Food Sources: • Egg yolk, milk, vegetable oil, green leafy vegetables, cabbage, broccoli

  16. Water-Soluble Vitamins B-complex vitamins Vitamin C

  17. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) • Functions: • Required for carbohydrate metabolism • Maintain normal nervous and cardiovascular systems • Deficiency: • GI upset • Neuritis • Mental disturbance • Cardiovascular problems • Muscle weakness, fatigue

  18. Vitamin B1 (cont.)Thiamine • Food Sources: • Pork, beef, liver • Oysters • Eggs • Fish • Yeast • Whole and enriched grains, wheat germ • Legumes, collard greens, nuts

  19. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) • Functions: • Aids release of energy from food • Deficiency: • Cheilosis • Glossitis • Photophobia, vision Problems • Dermatitis

  20. Vitamin B2 (cont.) Riboflavin • Food Sources: • Milk • Meat, liver • Green vegetables • Cereals • Enriched bread • Yeast

  21. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) • Functions: • Synthesis of amino acids • Antibody production • Deficiency: • Cheilosis, glossitis, dermatitis • Neuritis, depression • Toxicity: • Seizures in newborn

  22. Vitamin B6 (cont.) Pyridoxine • Food Sources: • Pork • Eggs • Whole grain cereals, wheat germ • Legumes, peanuts, soybeans • Potatoes

  23. Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) • Functions: • Synthesis of RBC’s • Maintenance of nervous system • Deficiency: • Nerve, muscle, mental problems • Pernicious anemia

  24. Vitamin B12 (cont.) Cyanocobalamin • Food Sources: • Foods of animal origin • Liver • Kidney • Fish and shellfish • Meat • Dairy foods

  25. Vitamin B3 or Niacin (nicotinic acid) • Functions: • Lipid metabolism • Nerve functioning • Deficiency: • Pellagra • Toxicity: • Vasodilatation of blood vessels

  26. Vitamin B3 or Niacin (cont.) • Food Sources: • Milk • Eggs • Fish • Poultry • Legumes, nuts

  27. Folate (folic acid) • Functions: • Synthesis of RBC’s • Deficiency: • Glossitis • Macrocytic anemia • Irritability, behavior disorders

  28. Folate (cont.) • Food Sources: • Organ meats • Green leafy vegetables • Avocado, beets • Broccoli • Orange juice

  29. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) • Functions: • Prevention of scurvy • Formation of collagen • Healing of wounds • Absorption of iron • Antioxidant

  30. Vitamin C (cont.) ascorbic acid • Deficiency: • Scurvy • Poor healing • Muscle cramps/weakness • Ulcerated gums/mouth • Capillary fragility

  31. Vitamin C (cont.) ascorbic acid • Toxicity: • Raise uric acid level • GI distress • Kidney stones • Rebound scurvy in neonates

  32. Vitamin C (cont.) ascorbic acid • Food Sources: • All citrus • Broccoli • Tomatoes • Brussels sprouts • Cabbage • Green peppers

  33. Pantothenic acid • B-complex vitamin • Used in protein and carbohydrate metabolism • Sources • Yeast • Liver, heart • Salmon • Eggs • Various grains

  34. Biotin • B-complex vitamin • Used in glucose and fat metabolism • Sources • Egg yolks • Peanut butter • Liver, kidneys • Cauliflower • yeast

  35. Minerals

  36. Minerals • Sodium ( Na ) • Chloride ( Cl ) • Potassium ( K ) • Calcium ( Ca ) • Iron ( Fe )

  37. Calcium (Ca) • Functions: • Development of bones and teeth • Permeability of cell membranes • Transmission of nerve impulses • Blood Clotting • Preparations • Calcium carbonate • Calcium gluconate • Calcium citrate

  38. Calcium (cont.) • Deficiency: • Osteoporosis • Osteomalacia • Rickets • Food Sources: • Milk, cheese • Sardines • Salmon • Green vegetables

  39. Potassium (K) • Functions: • Contraction of muscles • Transmission of nerve impulses • Carbohydrate and protein metabolism • Maintaining water balance • Preparations • Potassium chloride (KCL) • K-dur • K-lyte

  40. Potassium (cont.) • Deficiency: • Hypokalemia • Toxicity: • Hyperkalemia • Food Sources: • Oranges • Bananas • Dried fruits • Tomatoes

  41. Sodium (Na) • Functions: • Maintaining water balance in blood • Deficiency: • Hyponatremia • Toxicity: • Hypernatremia • Increase in blood pressure

  42. Chlorine (Cl) • Functions: • Gastric acidity • Regulation of osmotic pressure • Activation of salivary amylase • Deficiency: • Imbalance in gastric acidity • Toxicity: • Diarrhea • Food Sources: • Table salt

  43. Magnesium (Mg) • Functions: • Synthesis of ATP (adenosine triphosphosphate) • Transmission of nerve impulses • Relaxation of skeletal muscles • Deficiency: • Imbalance • Weakness

  44. Magnesium (cont.) • Toxicity: • Diarrhea • Food Sources: • Green vegetables • Whole grains

  45. Iron (Fe) • Function: • Hemoglobin formation • Resistance to infection • Deficiency: • Pale, Weak, Lethargy • Vertigo • Air hunger • Preparations • Ferrous fumarate • Ferrous gluconate • Ferrous sulfate (FeSO4)

  46. Iron (cont.) • Toxicity: • Vomiting/ Diarrhea • Erosion of GI tract • Food Sources: • Liver • Eggs • Poultry • Spinach • Dried Fruits

  47. Iodine (I) • Functions: • Major component of thyroid hormones • Regulating rate of metabolism • Growth, reproduction • Nerve and muscle function • Protein synthesis • Skin and hair growth • Preparations • Iodine solution (Lugol’s)

  48. Iodine (cont.) • Deficiency: • Goiter • Hypothyroidism • Toxicity: • “Iodine goiter” • Hyperactive, enlarged goiter • Food Sources: • Freshwater shellfish and seafood • Iodide salt

  49. Zinc (Zn) • Functions: • Wound healing • Mineralization of bone • Insulin glucose regulation • Normal taste • Deficiency: • Poor wound healing • Reduced taste perception • Alcohol/glucose intolerance

  50. Zinc (cont.) • Toxicity: • GI distress • Impaired immune system • Food Sources: • Liver • Oysters • Poultry • Fish • Whole-grain bread and cereal