A vitamin is an organic compound required as a vital nutrient in tiny amounts. • The term vitamin was derived from "vitamine, from vital and amine, meaning organic substance of life. • Vitamin cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be obtained from the diet/food • Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly.
Vitamins fall into two categories • Fat Soluble Vitamins • Vitamins — A, D, E, and K — dissolve in fat and can be stored in your body. • Water Soluble Vitamins • Vitamins — C and the B-complex vitamins (such as vitamins B6, B12, niacin, riboflavin, and folate)
Vitamin D • Vitamin D strengthens bones because it helps the body absorb bone-building calcium. • This vitamin is unique — your body manufactures it when you get sunlight on your skin! You can also get vitamin D from egg yolks, fish oils, and fortified foods like milk. • Deficiency: • Rickets in Children • Osteoporosis in Adults
Vitamin E • Vitamin E is an antioxidant and helps protect cells from damage. It is also important for the health of red blood cells. • Vitamin E is found in many foods, such as vegetable oils, nuts, and green leafy vegetables. Avocados, wheat germ, and whole grains are also good sources. The following symptoms will be seen in case of deficiency of Vitamin E. • It serves as a useful supplement for preventing some neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. • Deficiency:anaemia poor muscle coordination with shaky movements),Lack of reflexesParalysis of eye musclesInability to walk, • Decline in cognitive function
Vitamin K • Vitamin K plays a key role in normal clotting of the blood and helps promote bone health. • Vitamin K prevents severe blood loss due to injury, by slowing and stopping the bleeding. • Sources: Cabbage, Brussels Sprouts, lettuce • The deficiency of Vitamin K can manifest itself in the form of following symptoms: Excessive bleeding of woundsGastrointestinal bleeding
B Complex Vitamins In The B Complex Group Vitamin B1, (Thiamine) Vitamin B2, (Riboflavin) Vitamin B3, also Vitamin P or Vitamin PP (Niacin) Vitamin B5, (Pantothenic acid) Vitamin B6, (Pyridoxine and Pyridoxamine) Vitamin B7, also Vitamin H (Biotin) Vitamin B9, also Vitamin M and Vitamin B-c (Folic acid) Vitamin B12, (Cyanocobalamin) Since the B vitamins, are water soluble, the excess of these will be excreted out. They, other than vitamin B12, cannot be stored. So, they must be taken in a daily basis. Supplements are a good way to replenish vitamin B. • Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) - Beriberi, weight loss, emotional disturbances, pain in the limbs, periods of irregular heartbeat, and edema. • Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) - Cheilosis, cracks in the lips, high sensitivity to sunlight, inflammation of the tongue, seborrheic dermatitis or pseudo-syphilis, pharyngitis, hyperaemia, and edema of the pharyngeal and oral mucosa. • Vitamin B3 (Niacin) - Dermatitis, dementia and diarrhoea, aggression, insomnia, weakness, mental confusion, etc. • Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) - Acne and paresthesia. • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) - Anaemia, depression, dermatitis, high blood pressure (hypertension) and elevated levels of homocysteine. • Vitamin B7 - Impaired growth and neurological disorders in infants. • Vitamin B9 – in pregnant women, it can lead to birth defects. • •Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) - Pernicious anaemia, memory loss and other cognitive decline, sometimes even paralysis.
B Complex Deficiency Diseases BeriBeri Cheilosis Pellagra_Niacin Def
Minerals • Minerals are inorganic substances like sodium, potassium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iodine, iron, cobalt and copper. • They are divided into two groups: Major and Minor depending on the intake. • Plants incorporate minerals from the soil into their own tissues. For this reason fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts and seeds are often excellent sources of minerals.
Minerals Major Minor ( Trace Elements) Minor or trace minerals include boron, chromium, cobalt, fluorine, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, silicon, vanadium and zinc. • Major minerals include calcium, phosphorus, potassium,sodium, chlorine,magnesium and sulphur.
Calcium & Iron • Calcium is vital for building strong bones and teeth. • The time to build strong bones is during childhood and the teen years, so it's very important to get enough calcium now to fight against bone loss later in life. • Weak bones are susceptible to a condition called osteoporosis, which causes bones to break easily. • Iron helps red blood cells carry oxygen to all parts of the body. • Symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include weakness and fatigue, lightheadedness, and shortness of breath.
Magnesium, K, P, Zn • Magnesium helps muscles and nerves function, steadies the heart rhythm, and keeps bones strong. • It also helps the body create energy and make proteins. • Phosphorus (P) helps form healthy bones and teeth. • Potassium(K) helps with muscle and nervous system function. It also helps the body maintain the balance of water in the blood and body tissues. • Zinc(Zn) is important for normal growth, strong immunity, and wound healing.
Work For you :(( • What are Empty Calories? • 5 Tips to Build a healthy meal • 5 tips to add more vegetables to your Day • 5 tips to make your grains whole • TIP: Pl visit the USDA.gov website