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Vitamins and Minerals

Vitamins and Minerals

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Vitamins and Minerals

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  1. Vitamins and Minerals

  2. Vitamins • One of the first discoveries of the importance of vitamins came in the 1700s. • A Scottish doctor, James Lind, discovered that sailors who were fed citrus fruits recovered from scurvy. • Today, health scientists know that scurvy is caused by a lack of vitamin C, which is found in abundance in citrus fruits.

  3. What Are Vitamins? • Nutrients that are made by living things, are required only in small amounts, and that assist many chemical reactions in the body are vitamins. • There are two classes of vitamins • fat-soluble vitamins—dissolve in fatty material • water-soluble vitamins—dissolve in water

  4. Fat-Soluble Vitamins • Fat-soluble vitamins can be stored by the body • Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble vitamins • Sources of fat-soluble vitamins are • vegetable oils • liver • eggs • certain vegetables

  5. Water-Soluble Vitamins • Water-soluble vitamins cannot be stored by the body. • Examples of water-soluble vitamins are C and all of the B vitamins. • Sources of water-soluble vitamins are • fruits • vegetables • whole-grain foods • and many other foods

  6. Antioxidants • Vitamins called antioxidants help protect healthy cells from the damage caused by the normal aging process as well as from certain types of cancer. • Vitamins C and E are two of the most powerful antioxidants.

  7. Minerals • Your body requires only small amounts of minerals, which are nutrients that occur naturally in rocks and soil. • You need seven minerals—calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, chlorine, and sulfur—in significant amounts.

  8. Calcium • Calcium is important in blood clotting and the functioning of your nervous system. • It is an essential ingredient in the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. • A lack of calcium can sometimes lead to osteoporosis, a condition in which the bones gradually weaken.

  9. Potassium • Potassium and sodium work together to maintain water balance in the body.

  10. Iron • Iron is necessary for healthy red blood cells. • If a person’s diet does not include enough iron, he or she may develop anemia, a condition in which the red blood cells do not contain enough hemoglobin.

  11. Sodium • Sodium is important in several body processes, including the functioning of the heart and water balance. • Too much sodium can cause a problem with blood pressure.

  12. Vitamin and Mineral Supplements • Vitamin and mineral supplements, therefore, are not usually necessary if your diet is nutritious and well-balanced. • An excess, or overdose, of vitamins or minerals may damage your health. • If you do take a vitamin or mineral supplement, a health care provider can advise you about how much is the right amount.

  13. Vocabulary • Deficiency disease • Phytochemicals • Niacin • Major Minerals • Trace Minerals • Bioavailability • Megadose • Folic Acid • Vitamins • Minerals • Water-soluble vitamins • Fat-soluble vitamins

  14. Questions 1. • What are the two categories of vitamins? • How are they different? • Give examples of each. 2. A. How long have vitamins and minerals been known about? B. How does technology help? C. How has this knowledge made some diseases less likely? 3. How are vitamins and minerals different?

  15. Vitamins and Minerals

  16. Vitamins • One of the first _____________________of the importance of vitamins came in the _____________. • A ________________doctor, _____________________, discovered that _______________who were fed citrus fruits recovered from ______________. • Today, health scientists know that _______________is caused by a lack of ___________________, which is found in ____________________in citrus fruits.

  17. What Are _______________? • ___________________ that are made by living things, are required only in ___________amounts, and that assist many ________________reactions in the body are ___________________. • There are ____classes of vitamins • ___________________vitamins—dissolve in fatty material • _____________________vitamins—dissolve in water

  18. Fat-Soluble Vitamins • Fat-soluble _____________ can be stored by the body • Vitamins __________________________________are fat-soluble vitamins • Sources of fat-soluble vitamins are • vegetable oils • _______________ • eggs • certain vegetables

  19. Water-Soluble Vitamins • Water-soluble vitamins __________________be ___________________by the _____________. • _________________of water-soluble ____________are C and all of the ______ vitamins. • Sources of water-soluble vitamins are • ________________________ • vegetables • ______________________________ • and many other foods

  20. Antioxidants • Vitamins called _________________________help protect healthy cells from the damage caused by the ________________aging ________________ as well as from certain types of _____________________. • Vitamins _______ and _________ are ________of the most _____________________antioxidants.

  21. Minerals • Your body _________________only small amounts of _____________________, which are nutrients that occur _____________________in rocks and ____________. • You need __________minerals—calcium, ____________, potassium, ______________, phosphorus, __________, and sulfur—in significant _______________.

  22. Calcium • __________________is important in _____________clotting and the __________________of your ______________________system. • It is an _________________ingredient in the formation and _________________________ of ______________and teeth. • A ____________of calcium can sometimes _______to ________________________, a condition in which the ______________gradually ___________________.

  23. Potassium • ________________________ and ____________________work together to maintain water _______________ in the _______________.

  24. Iron • Iron is necessary for healthy _____________________________________. • If a person’s __________does not include __________iron, he or she may develop _________________, a ___________________in which the red blood cells do not contain enough ___________________________.

  25. Sodium • ____________________is important in ________________body ____________________, including the functioning of the _______________and water __________________. • ___________much ___________________can cause a problem with _________________________.

  26. Vitamin and Mineral Supplements • ____________________and mineral supplements, therefore, are not usually __________________if your diet is nutritious and _______________________. • An _________________, or overdose, of _________________or minerals may _______________ your _____________________. • If you do take a vitamin or mineral _____________________, a health care ________________can advise you about _________much is the ___________________amount.

  27. Vocabulary • Deficiency disease • Phytochemicals • Niacin • Major Minerals • Trace Minerals • Bioavailability • Megadose • Folic Acid • Vitamins • Minerals • Water-soluble vitamins • Fat-soluble vitamins

  28. Questions 1. • What are the two categories of vitamins? • How are they different? • Give examples of each. 2. A. How long have vitamins and minerals been known about? B. How does technology help? C. How has this knowledge made some diseases less likely? 3. How are vitamins and minerals different?