The Industrial Revolution Origins and Causes of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION …took place during the 18thand 19th centuries, was a period during which mostly agricultural and rural societies in Europe and America became industrialand urban. * Prior to the Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain in the late 1700s, manufacturing was often done in people’s homes, using hand tools or basic machines. Industrialization marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production. * The iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central roles in the Industrial Revolution, which also saw improved systems of transportation, communication and banking. * While industrialization brought about an increased volume and variety of manufactured goods and an improved standard of living for some, it also resulted in often grim employment and living conditions for the poor and working classes.
* What are the ORIGINS of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain? (EQ #1) 1.) An Agrarian Revolutionthat changed farming in Europe! 2.) Population Growthin Great Britain during the 18th century! 3.) The British Empirehad a wide Supplyof Markets… 4.) Great Britain had the ability to make Capital Investments! 5.) Geography, Natural Resourcesand a Strong Navy… 6.) A strong, supportiveand stableGovernmentallowed for growth!
Agrarian Revolution • * Europe underwent an agricultural revolution… which would help lead to the industrial revolution! • 1.) The Enclosure Movement spread to England in the 17th century (process of privatizing ‘common land’) – wealthy farmers bought land from small farmers! * Movement led to: 1.) Larger farms 2.) More efficient farms 3.) Urbanization * THINK – “WHY did the ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT have these effects?”
Agrarian Revolution • 2.) Charles ‘Turnip’ Townsend: wealthy landlord from Norfolk – encouraged crop rotation * grow more crops and get a better yield from the land(if a crop was not rotated, the nutrient level in the field would go down – yield of the crop from the field decreased) * What did this new technique lead to? 1.) Increased food for animals 2.) …more manure = better crops * Beneficial agricultural cycle!
Agrarian Revolution • 3.) Jethro Tull perfected the seed drill (1701) that economicallysowed the seeds in neat rows… (more seed taking root = more crops) * Tull's methods were adopted by English landowners (helped form the basis of modern agriculture) 4.) Robert Bakewell, 18th century English Agriculturalist, well known for selective breedingof sheep and cattle(larger cattle, better cattle = more food!) * Before the seed drill, common practice was to plant seeds by hand… besides being wasteful, planting was imprecise and led to a poor distribution of seeds, leading to low productivity!
Population Growth * The Agrarian Revolution: 1.) …MORE FOOD! 2.) = MORE people being fed! 3.) = MORE people surviving! …MORE stability throughout society 4.) Enclosures sent people out of countryside into Cities * Factors led to a population boom in Great Britain during the 18th century!
British Empireand the Supplyof Markets * …world’s leading colonial power, which meant that its colonies could serve as a source for raw materials, as well as a marketplace for manufactured goods! * Population boom caused domestic demand torise …MORE people need MORE food, clothes, etc. “A marketis any place where the sellers of a good or service can meet with the buyers of that good or service where there is potential for a transaction to take place.”
Capital Investments * British colonial expansion during the 17th century led to the development of international trade, the creation of new financial markets and the accumulation of capital! * NEW WEALTHallowed for entrepreneurs to make large investments of capital into the textile, coalminingand metalindustries * EXAMPLE: “The textile industry, for instance, relied on raw material from America; finished goods were sold internally but also abroad, especially in India, where British colonial rule was able virtually to destroy the once flourishing Indian textile industry by forbidding the export of Indian textiles.” * “WHAT IS CAPITAL?” material wealth… in the form of money or property.
Geography, Natural Resourcesand a Strong Navy 1.) RIVERS and CANALS for TRANSPORTATION and WATER POWER 2.) GREAT BRITAIN as an Island… Ports enabled TRADE 3.) Coal provided for FUEL 4.) Iron ORE strengthened MANUFACTURING 5.) Populationprovided for WORKERS 6.) STRONG NAVYto protect economy NATURAL RESOURCES: “naturally occurring exploitable material” (coal, wood, water, minerals, etc.)
strong, supportiveand stableGovernment * Great Britain used their political stability to their advantage; STRONG EMPIRE, stable governmentat home and government that was supportive of laissez-faire economics! 1.) Out of ALL the wars that had been fought during the 17th and 18th centuries – how many were fought in ENGLAND? 2.) Great Britain had abolished feudalism (1660) – no feudal class to hold back the working class! …led to a very large and free peasantry/working class in England!