Essential Questions • What conditions exist which promote the industrial revolution in Great Britain? • Why are the causes and consequences of rapid industrialization in Great Britain? • What are the long-term global effects of Britain’s industrial prowess?
Warm-up Activity ARE YOU A “PRODUCT” OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION? • What time did you get out of bed this morning? • Who or what awakened you this morning? • Did you eat a breakfast? Was an appliance used in any way to facilitate your breakfast? Explain. • How far from school do you live? How did you get to school? When do you need to leave the house in order to be at Eastview on time? • How is the school day at Eastview structured? Explain. • What will you do at the end of the school day? Where will you go…what will you do…when will that “activity” end? • What time do you plan to eat dinner this evening? With whom will you eat dinner? Where do you plan to eat dinner? Will an appliance be used in any way to facilitate your dinner? Explain. • What will you do after dinner this evening? Will you use any electronic equipment after dinner? What time will you go to bed?
Why Great Britain? • Colonial market, expanding Atlantic trade, strong tariff-free home market creates new demands for manufactured goods • Cheap food frees up expendable income for industrial goods • Available capital, stable government, economic freedom, and mobile labor provides right mix in England • Industrial Revolution begins in 1780’s in Great Britain, after 1815 on the Continent.
The First Factories • Growing demand for textiles leads to the creation of the first large factories • Putting out system can’t keep up with demand
The First Factories • Hargreaves’s spinning jenny and Arkwright’s water frame speed up spinning • Cotton spinning gradually moved to factories • Cotton goods cheaper and more available • Wages of weavers rise quick, ag workers move to become weavers
Working Conditions • Working conditions in factories bad, become poorhouses • Abandoned kids prime labor force • “apprenticed” workers 13-14 hour days • Exploitation leads to reform and humanitarian attitudes toward kids • 1831, cotton industry has grown to 22% of nation’s industrial output
The Problem of Energy • Solution to energy problem was cause of industrialization • Energy sources have always been plants, animals, and humans. • Energy from land was limited • Britain’s major source of fuel was wood, nearly gone • Wood gave heat and charcoal which was used for iron production • Needed new source of power= coal
Steam Engine Breakthrough • Coal used for heat, but not for mechanical energy or to run machinery • 1 day of coal production= 27 days worth of energy • Early steam engines (Savery and Newcomen) were inefficient • 1760’s James Watt increased the efficiency of steam engines and began to produce them • Steam power was used in many industries and encouraged other breakthroughs • Textile industry expansion • Iron made coke available • Cort’s puddling furnace increased production of pig iron
The Coming of Railroads • Stephenson’s “Rocket” first locomotive (Liverpool to Manchester) • Railroad boom means lower transportation costs, larger markets and cheaper goods. • RR workers were taken from the country and brought to the city • RR changed the outlook and values of the society
Industry and Population • 1851 Great Exposition, held in Crystal Palace, reflected growth of the industry and population. Dubbed “workshop of the world”.
Industry and Population • GNP grew 400% and population boomed, but consumption grew only 75% • Malthus argued population would always exceed food supply • Ricardo said wages would always be low • Both proven wrong in the long run Thomas Malthus David Ricardo
Questions for your review • What raw good did the first English textile factories work with? • What factors facilitated the Industrial Revolution in Britain? • What are the consequences of the revolutionary changes in the textile industry? • What were some of the challenges that workers faced moving from a rural to a factory environment? • How efficient and fast were the first locomotives? • How were the earliest steam engines used? • What was THE major breakthrough in energy and power supply which catalyzed the Industrial Revolution? • Where was the first important railroad line? (which cities?) • Who built the railroads? • What was the Crystal Palace? • Who was David Ricardo…what is his significant contribution to our study?