How Do We Know? • Remember, history is what is remembered and written down, along with the bias of the writer. • Herodotus - primary source • “Father of History” • Ionian Greek • Eye-witness & interviewed Eye-witnesses • Wrote The Persian Wars
How Do We Know? “These are the inquiries (the Greek word is ‘histories’) of Herodotus of Halikarnassos, which he sets down so that he can preserve the memory of what these men have done, and ensure that the wondrous achievements of the Greeks and barbarians (the Persians) do not lose their deserved fame, and also to record why we went to war with each other.” -Herodotus
Persian Empire Expands • Remember the Persians? • Conquered the Babylonians… • “Freed” the Jews and allowed them to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the temple to Yahweh • Cyrus the Great ---> Jews called him the “Messiah” or God’s “anointed one” • Empire ---> largest to date under Darius, from Egypt, Asia Minor to India • Satraps & Satrapies
Persian War - the Greeks vs. the Persians People to know… GREEKS PERSIANS -Leonidas -Cyrus the Great -Pericles -Darius* -Themistocles -Xerxes* Key Battles to Know … (there’s 4) B. of Marathon B. of Thermopylae B. of Salamis B. of Plataea
The Persian War SO WHAT? Who cares? What’s at stake? JUST THE FUTURE OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION!
SARDIS * • ATHENS • SPARTA
New Emperor - XERXES • Son of Darius • Finish what his father started
PERSIAN WAR Q.W. Summarize in a paragraph the Persian War so far. Use you notes and your BRAIN!
3rd Invasion - Sea and Land SARDIS * • ATHENS • SPARTA
Battle of Plataea -LAST MAJOR LAND BATTLE -Who is Victorious? Who has “NIKE”?
492 BCE - 1st invasion -Ionia, Macedonia & Thrace, Dardanelles ------> Persian Empire expands - into Asia Minor & northern Greece • Ionia and Ionian Greeks revolt • Persia - punish Athens for helping • 490 BCE - 2nd invasion • B.of Marathon • New Emperor - XERXES • 480 BCE - 3rd invasion - punish Greece for good • B.of Thermopylae • B.of Salamis • B.of Plataea • Aftermath - Athenian expansion & greatness - Delian League* Persian War - Overview
Aftermath of the Persian War • Athenian Imperialistic expansion • cultural, economic & military power ---> navy • Athens & “allies” -->Delian League • “Golden Age” for Athens ----> “Age of Pericles” • Sparta and allies -----> Peloponnesian League • Outbreak of war • Expected to be short
Peloponnesian War • Conflicts between the two power’s allies - ultimate involvement of Sparta & Athens • War’s escalation • - no definitive battle • - plague • - Alcibiades • - truce • - Sicily • - Persians • - Defeat & Aftermath