GEO STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF PAKISTAN 23-11-2013 Muhammad Ali Khan
Out line • Geographical Position of Pakistan. • Relations with neighboring countries. • Importance of Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea. • Importance of Pakistan with reference to land lock countries. • Super Power’s Interest. • Pakistan’s Relations with Super Powers. • Regional Importance of Pakistan. • Front line state against the War on terrorism. • Conclusion
GEO-STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF PAKISTAN Location West part of South Asia. It lies between the latitudes of 23.30 degree and 35.45 degree north and between the longtitudes of 61 degree and 75.31 degree east of Greenwich. Total Area 796096 sq km broad East to West. 1600 kms north to south and about 885 kms broad east to west.
Boundaries • March with Iran, Afghanistan and India bounded to west by Iran • To the North by Afghanistan to the North East by China. • To the East and South East by India and to the South by Arabian Sea • Pakistan is separated from Tajikistan by a narrow strip of Afghan territory called “WAKHAN”
Border • PAKISTAN shares border 2252 km long common border (Durand Line) with Afghanistan • 585 kms long border with China • 805 kms long border with Iran • 700 kms long coast with the Arabian Sea
Geographical Position of Paksitan • Map of the Pakistan. • Locations of the neighboring countries. • Border sharing with the neighboring countries. • Sea-ports of the Pakistan. • Border sharing with the Arabian Sea. • Importance of the Persian Gulf. • U.S.A’s interest in the Persian Gulf. • 60-70% Oil trade of the world through Persian Gulf. • Pakistan’s Border sharing with two atomic powers.
Importance of the neighboring countries • India • Indian population is more than 1.2 billion. • India as an emerging power in the region. • Pakistan-India clashes. • China • China’s population is more than 1.5 billion. • China is emerging economical super power in the world. • China’s policies with the neighboring countries. • Afghanistan • Afghanistan’s position in the world regarding war on terrorism. • Iran • Iran’s importance regarding oil producing gulf countries. • Iran’s foreign policy-U.S.A contained in the region. • Threat of the clash between U.S.A and Iran in the Persian gulf.
Relations with neighboring countries • Pakistan’s relations with India. Pakistan’s hard diplomacy and foreign policy towards India. Bone of contention between Pakistan and India. Regional hegemony of India. Role of SAARC • Pakistan’s relations with China. Friendship based on individuals interest. Friendship between developed and developing countries. Importance of Gawader Port for the china
Cont… • Pakistan's relations with Iran. Iran’s importance regarding oil producing countries. Iran’s interests in Pakistan. Regional Importance of Iran for Pakistan. Gas pipeline agreement between Pakistan and Iran. Role of U.S.A in the region particularly regarding Iran’s foreign policy • Pakistan’s relations with Afghanistan. Participation of Pakistan in proxy war at Afghanistan against Russia. Border security Issue. Indian’s involvement in Pakistan through western Border. Talibinization. Role of U.S.A in the friendship of Pakistan and Afghanistan. U turn in the Pakistan’s Foreign Policy regarding Afghanistan.
Importance of Persian Gulf • Location of Persian Gulf. • Gulf Countries issue and role of U.S.A. • Presence of US Navy. • Role of Iran’s policies to contain the U.S.A’s policies. • Importance of Gawader. • China’s interest in the Persian Gulf. • US hegemony threatening by the china’s presence.
Pakistan’s Importance regarding Trade for the Land Lock Countries • Pakistan’s enjoys friendly relations with central Asian countries • Importance of Pakistan for the Afghan trade and transit trade is vital. • China’s interest of trade through Pakistan. • Trade’s impacts on Pakistan’s economy. • Role of foreign agencies in the Pakistan to hurt the china’s interest in Pakistan.
Interests of Super Powers • Importance of Pakistan since cold war era. • U-2 • China USA relation • Importance of Pakistan in the proxy war against communism in Afghanistan 1979-87 • US’ support for intervene in the war for Pakistan. • Success of the U.S.A and U turn of the U.S.A in Russia-Afghan war. • China’s economic and Military interests in the region. • Gawader to Control the Indian Occasion • Negative Role of India in the region. • TTP and other banned outfits
Pakistan’s Relation with Super Powers. • Pak-US relations. Pakistan’s entry into capitalist block. Ups and downs in the Pak-U.S relations during 50s-60s. Pakistan supported by U.S.A in the Russian- Afghan war. • Pak- Russia Relations. Pak-U.S.S.R relations during 60s-70s. Gift of the Steel Mill for Pakistan Bhutto’s policies of socialism
Regional Importance • Role of Pakistan in SAARC. • 2nd Important Member • Indian’s hegemony in the region and counter policies of Pakistan. • Atomic Power • Pakistan’s relations with other SAARC countries. • Role of other super powers in the region. • As first Defense line of China • First proxy in the WOT • Interest of other super powers in the region. • US-China • US-USSR
Pakistan as a Front Line State • War on Terrorism. • War against Communism • Origin of the terrorism. • Location of Pakistan regarding war issues. • Pakistan’s U turn from Supporting Talban to TTP • Role of Pakistan in war on terrorism. • 50 K Martyrs, Economic Loss • Suffering of Pakistan in that war. • Role of Pakistan’s agencies in this war.
Conclusion • Drawbacks and benefits of the geo strategic and importance of Pakistan • War ridden economy • Terrorism • Economic Dependency • Play ground of Superpowers • Buffer Zone for Sectarian Clashes • Future of Pakistan is bright • Political and Military strategic plan of Pakistan. • Economic potential of Pakistan • Transit trade • Oil Roots • Change in Foreign Policy
What can we earn ? • National Interest • National Security. • Territorial Integrity. • Economic well being. • National Prestige.
FOREIGN POLICY OF PAKISTAN Concept • “The external policy of an independent, sovereign state which it pursues in its relations with other nations of the world in order to seek its national interest.” • “The external policy of the state which it pursues to preserve its ideological character, safeguard its territorial integrity, maintain its political sovereignty and guarantee its economic well being”
DETERMINENTS OF PAKISTAN’S FOREIGN POLICY • National Interest Supported by • Geo-Political Settings. • Historical Legacies and Past Traditions. • Socio-Economic Condition. • Political Systems and Structure. • Ideological Considerations. • Decision Makers Dream, Images and Motives. • External Environment. • Power Considerations. • National Interest.
ELEMENTS AFFECTING FOREIGN POLICY • Technology leaves impact on foreign policy. • The national capacity of a state also exercises profound influence on the foreign policy of state. • The social structure of a society also exercise profound influence on its foreign policy. • Public opinion is another important element of country’s foreign policy.
ELEMENTS AFFECTING FOREIGN POLICY • The political organization found in a country also greatly influences the foreign policy. For example under authoritarian systems quick foreign policy decisions are taken • The press also plays a vital role in foreign policy formulation process • The nature of political accountability prevailing in a system also greatly influence the foreign policy of the state. • The leadership also plays a vital role in the shaping of a country’s foreign policy • The great power structure prevailing in the world politics also greatly influence the policy of a country
ELEMENTS AFFECTING FOREIGN POLICY • While making foreign policy the state has to take note of the international law, treaties and contracts. • While formulating its foreign policy a country has to take note of the reaction of other states to its various actions. • Alliances concluded by various states also greatly influence the foreign policy. • The world public opinion also influences the state’s foreign policy.
PHASES OF PAKISTAN’S FOREIGN POLICY Phase-I 1947-53 (The Era of Neutrality) Phase-II 1954-62 (The Era of Alignment) (1)Pak-US Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement. (2)South-East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) (3)Central Treaty Organization (CENTO)
PHASES OF PAKISTAN’S FOREIGN POLICY Phase-III 1963-77 (The Era of Bilateralism) Phase-IV 1978-89 (The Era of Non-Alignment) Phase-V 1999 Onwards(Quest for Multilateral Foreign Policy) • Restructuring of Foreign Policy Keeping in view of Geo-Strategic Importance