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The Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia. Location, Location, Location!. *Don’t write!!!!!!!!!!! * FC Today: Iraq, Syria, Jordan Lebanon, Israel,Turkey & Iran *FC is horseshoe/crescent shaped area of good farmland along Tigris & Euphrates rivers that stretches from W Mediterranean to Persian Gulf.

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Location location location
Location, Location, Location!

*Don’t write!!!!!!!!!!!

* FC Today: Iraq, Syria, Jordan Lebanon, Israel,Turkey & Iran

*FC is horseshoe/crescent shaped area of good farmland along Tigris & Euphrates rivers that stretches from W Mediterranean to

Persian Gulf



Location
Location!

  • Don’t write!

  • Tigris & Euphrates flow from E. Turkey

    to Persian Gulf.

  • Area known

    as Mesopotamia

    (land btw rivers)


The fertile crescent mesopotamia


Sumerians
Sumerians! fertile


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

  • Don’t write: Settle 3300 BC fertile

  • Good soil, few resources, no protection & flooding

    Solution?

  • Dug irrigation ditches

  • Built city walls w/ mud bricks

    *trade tools for raw

    materials


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

  • By 3000 BC built fertilecity-states -independent cities w/ own govts & rulers,

    & separate

    gods

  • Share culture

  • Ex: Kish,

    Lagash,

    Ur, Uruk


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

*All CS’s had fertileziggurat (temple) in middle

*Govt controlled by zig priests

  • Farmers need blessings of gods for crops & priests were go betweens

  • During war, led by commanders (eventually became

    full time leader)

  • Creates a Dynasty- single family rule


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

  • Don’t write!!! fertile

  • Built in receding tiers upon a rectangular, oval, or square platform, the ziggurat was a pyramidal structure with a flat top. Sun-baked bricks made up the core of the ziggurat with facings of fired bricks on the outside. The facings were often glazed in different colors!


The fertile crescent mesopotamia


Religion
Religion fertile

*Polytheistic- many gods

  • Gods all powerful

    & immortal w/

    humans as slaves,

    fatalistic,

    pessimistic

    (build ziggarats, offer sacrifice

    of animals,wine)

  • Enlil- god of storms/air,

    controls cosmos & man


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

Social class structure! fertile

Kings, priests, landowners

Wealthy merchants

Field workers

Slaves (sold as kids or pows)

****Women had rights! Could own property, be merchants, etc!!!***


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

Arches, columns, ramps, pyramid shape design fertile

Dev number system base 60 (time, 360)

Inventions & ideas develop from needs!!

Invented wheel, plow, sail and use bronze

Cuneiform


The fertile crescent mesopotamia


Akkadians
Akkadians fertile


Akkadians sargon
Akkadians fertile & Sargon

  • 2350 BC: SARGON of AKKAD (city-state in N) conquers city-states of Sumer

  • Controls Meso & creates first EMPIRE (brings together people, nations, independent states under 1 ruler) (From Med coast to Iran)

  • Fell apart due to invasions, fighting after 200 years


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

SARGON fertile

AKKAD


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

To bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil doers, so that the strong should not harm the weak


The fertile crescent mesopotamia


Hittites
Hittites marriage, family

  • 2000 BC Hittites appear from Anatolia (high, rocky platuea w/ minerals, timber in Turkey)

  • Indo-European speakers. Separate city states create empire (Hattusas capital)

  • Invade T/E around 1600 BC


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

  • Tactics: marriage, family

  • 1st to work iron into weapons (had charcoal & iron ore)

  • 2 wheeled chariots, wood frame, leather

    covered, 2-4 horses

  • Stalemate w/

    Egyptians


Phonecians
Phonecians marriage, family

  • Don’t’ write! 1100 BC- Lebanon today!

  • Merchants, traders & seafarers whobuilt CS’s that competed w/ each other (Byblos, Tyre, Sidon) all over Med (sail as far as GB & around Africa)

  • Trade goods (wine, weapons, metals), superb craftsmen (red/purple dye, wood, ivory)


The fertile crescent mesopotamia


Lydians
LYDIANS marriage, family

  • Mostly in Anatolia (Tur)

  • 1st to coin money of gold & silver btw 700 BC to 550 BC. Traders (coins stamped w/ king’s symbol of lion head & sunburst)

  • Destroyed by

    Persians


Assyrians
Assyrians marriage, family

  • 300 miles N Mesopotamia

  • Aggressive, cruel, constant warfare

    to expand

    *Defeat Syria,

    Palestine, Egypt

    Babylonia, Sumer

    btw 1000 & 650 BC


Military tactics
Military Tactics marriage, family

  • Iron helmets/leather skirts w/ scales, iron swords & iron tipped spears, shields

  • span rivers w/

    pontoons, floating

    bridges

  • Dig under walls

    to weaken them

    (sappers)


The fertile crescent mesopotamia


Ruling power
Ruling Power marriage, family

  • Officials govern land closest to Assyria as provinces, made dependent & chose their rulers (governors report to central authority)

  • Pay taxes & tribute, destroyed if don’t


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

  • Don’t Write! marriage, family Ninevah:

  • Walled city 3 miles

    wide, 1 mi long

  • Carvings of military campaigns

  • King Ashurbanipal created library w/ 20,000 tablets from FC

  • (organized by room,

    subject matter)


The fertile crescent mesopotamia


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

  • 612 BC-538 BC marriage, familyChaldeans (aka Neo-Babylonians) invade Assyria destroy Nineveh

  • Made Babylon capital (1000 yrs after Hammurabi) & restore city

  • Nebuchadnezzar built Hanging Gardens of Babylon

  • study astronomy (chart star positions) from ziggurat

  • Destroyed by Persians


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

Built garden to please his wife marriage, familyAmytis of Media, who longed for the trees and fragrant plants of her homeland.[1] Gardens destroyed by earthquakes. 100 feet ( long by 100 ft wide & built in tiers so that it resembled a theatre. Vaults constructed under the terraces carried weight of the planted garden; Highest part garden, (75 feet) was on the same level as the city walls. Roofs of vaults supported the garden made of stone beams 16 ft long,. Laid over these were a layer of reeds set in thick tar, then two courses of baked brick bonded by cement, & finally a covering of lead to prevent the moisture in the soil penetrating the roof.. The earth was levelled off & t planted w/ every kind of tree. Galleries were sunlit, & contained conduits for the water which was raised by pumps from the river, though no one outside could see it being done


Persians
Persians marriage, family

*Today: Iran (Caspian Sea to Persian Gulf)

*fertile

farmland

w/ many

minerals

(gold, silver,

copper, lead

lapis lazuli)


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

  • 550 BC marriage, familyCyrus the Great conquers from Indus to Anatolia

  • Kind, tolerant, honors local customs traditions, religions,

  • Allowed Jews to return to Israel


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

  • Don’t Write! 530 BC Son Cyrus’ Cambyses conquers Egypt & is cruel,dies. Brother Smerdis (fake, tries to take over) Darius knows he is a fake

  • Darius, (522 BC) noble in king’s body guard, seized throne w/ help of elite soldiers & puts down

    revolts

  • Conquest!! Conquers

    & controls 2500 miles (Afghanistan into India)


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

Darius & is cruel,dies. Brother Smerdis (fake, tries to take over) Darius knows he is a fake


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

* & is cruel,dies. Brother Smerdis (fake, tries to take over) Darius knows he is a fakePersia div into 20 provinces, using homelands, keep their religion, languages & laws

  • Use satrap - gov to rule locally, plus a mili leader & tax collector & use spies


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

Royal Road 1677 miles (messenger relays) & is cruel,dies. Brother Smerdis (fake, tries to take over) Darius knows he is a fake

METAL coins


Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism & is cruel,dies. Brother Smerdis (fake, tries to take over) Darius knows he is a fake

  • Religion started by Zoroaster (600 BC. Prophet)

  • Earth is battleground btw spirit of good (light) & evil (darkness)

  • Each person part of struggle

  • Ahura Mazda judges everyone at end of time on how well you fought


Hebrews israel and judaism
Hebrews, Israel and Judaism & is cruel,dies. Brother Smerdis (fake, tries to take over) Darius knows he is a fake


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

  • Palestine & is cruel,dies. Brother Smerdis (fake, tries to take over) Darius knows he is a fakeeast

    end of Med Sea

  • Hebrews lived

    in Canaan (btw

    Jordan R &

    Med Sea)

  • Crossroads-

    seaports on Red

    & Med Seas


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

  • Torah & is cruel,dies. Brother Smerdis (fake, tries to take over) Darius knows he is a fake tells story of Hebrews

    (1st 5 books of Heb/Christian bible

    *1800 BC Abraham chosen by God to lead/be the “father” of Hebrews, wanders for

    for years.


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

*Don’t write!! & is cruel,dies. Brother Smerdis (fake, tries to take over) Darius knows he is a fake

*believe in 1 god Yaweh, (Monotheism)

*had power over all people

*God looked after Hebrews & get homeland (Canaan) if they obeyed (covenant: mutual

promise)


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

Don’t write! Grandson Jacob (aka Israel) had 12 sons, each was leader of 12 tribes of Israel. 1600 BC Joseph led them to Egypt, enslaved

  • 1230 BC? Moses led them out of Egypt, (the Exodus) wandered for 40 years.

  • Given 10 commandments

    (social &

    religious behavior,

    new covenant)

  • Return to

    promised land


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

Don’t Write!! was leader of 12 tribes of Israel. 1600 BC Joseph led them to Egypt, enslaved

God’s mercy

Live justly with one another

Moral life in god’s laws

Worship 1 god

no one above law 62 old


The fertile crescent mesopotamia


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

  • King David- kings unite tribes, est Jerusalem

  • King Solomon- built trade empire on Med & big Temple in Jerusalem for the Ark of the Covenant

  • (holds 10

    commandments)


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

  • Solomon's kings

    projects raised

    taxes, strain all

  • Jews in N

    revolt after

    Solomon dies &

    divides in half:

    Judah in S &

    Israel in N


Judah israel fall don t write
Judah & Israel Fall (DON”T WRITE) kings

  • 783 BC: tribute to Assyria

  • 722 BC: Israel falls

  • 586 BC: Neb destroys Judah & Jerusalem.

  • Jews exiled

    to Babylon

    (Babylonian

    Captivity)


The fertile crescent mesopotamia

539 BC: kingsCyrus the Great (Persia) conquers Babylon & allows Jews to return

Jerusalem

rebuilt 445 BC,

but later

taken

by Greeks,

then Romans