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The Civil Rights Movement

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  1. The Civil Rights Movement

  2. The Civil Rights Movement • Origins Of The Movement • Executive Order 9981 • Destabilization of the racial system during WWII • Mass migration out of the segregated South • The Cold war and rise of independent states in the Third World • Mendez v. Westminster • Brown v. Board of Education

  3. K-W-L - The Civil Rights Movement What I Know About the CRM What I Want to Learn About the CRM What I Learned About the CRM

  4. The Civil Rights Movement • Small Group Activity • Timeline Construction • Directions: • Using the supplied poster board, construct a Civil Rights Timeline • Include the following: • Minimum TEN key events • Minimum Ten key personalities • Provide a brief description of each • Hypothesis: • Write a one-page summary where you hypothesize which event you believe had the biggest impact on the Civil Rights Movement. • This is just a hypothesis. Make an argument why you believe what you believe.

  5. Small Group Activity: The 14th Amendment • Historical Context: The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution is the most used and cited amendment in litigation in the court system. It forces all states to give equal protection under the law to all citizens of the United States and forbids the states from infringing on these federal rights. • Directions: • Analyze Primary Source Documents • Construct Data Table • Summarize • Impact on society ***Requires 14th Amendment Learning Packet

  6. The 14th Amendment

  7. The Civil Rights Movement • The Brown Case • Landmark Case • 1954 • For many, acknowledged as the Supreme Courts greatest decision. • Overturned Plessy v Ferguson (1890) • Held that racial segregation against children in public schools violated the Equal Protection clause of the 14th Amendment • Galvanized the Civil Rights Movement

  8. The Civil Rights Movement The Brown Case

  9. The Civil Rights Movement The Brown Case

  10. The Civil Rights Movement The Brown Case TTYN: What was the Plessey v. Ferguson decision? What Was Going On • In 1954, large portions of the United States had racially segregated schools, segregated public facilities were constitutional so long as the black and white facilities were equal to each other. • NAACP lawyers brought class action lawsuits on behalf of black schoolchildren and their families in Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia, and Delaware, seeking court orders to compel school districts to let black students attend white public schools. 

  11. The Civil Rights Movement The Brown Case What Was Going On • One of these class actions, Brown v. Board of Education was filed against the Topeka, Kansas school board by representative-plaintiff Oliver Brown, parent of one of the children denied access to Topeka's white schools. • Claimed that that Topeka's racial segregation violated the Constitution's Equal Protection Clause because the city's black and white schools were not equal to each other and never could be.

  12. The Civil Rights Movement The Brown Case • The federal district court dismissed his claim, ruling that the segregated public schools were "substantially" equal enough to be constitutional under the Plessy doctrine. • Brown appealed to the Supreme Court, which consolidated and then reviewed all the school segregation actions together. Thurgood Marshall, who would in 1967 be appointed the first black justice of the Court, was chief counsel for the plaintiffs. 

  13. The Civil Rights Movement The Brown Case • Thanks to the astute leadership of Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Court spoke in a unanimous decision written by Warren himself. • The decision held that racial segregation of children in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, which states that "no state shall make or enforce any law which shall ... deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."

  14. The Civil Rights Movement The Brown Case • Public education in the 20th century, said the Court, had become an essential component of a citizen's public life, forming the basis of democratic citizenship, normal socialization, and professional training. In this context, any child denied a good education would be unlikely to succeed in life. • Widespread racial integration of the South was achieved by the late 1960s and 1970s.

  15. The Civil Rights Movement The Brown Case • The equal protection ruling in Brown would spill over into other areas of the law and into the political arena as well. • Many scholars now point out that Brown v. Board was not the beginning of the modern civil rights movement, but there is no doubt that it constituted a watershedmoment in the struggle for racial equality in America.

  16. Thematic Question Historical Context: Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) is one of the most significant cases in the history of the United States Supreme Court. In this case the Supreme Court ruled that “in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” This decision influenced government policies and American society throughout the 20th century. Write a one-page summary where you discuss the impact of the Brown v. Board of Education decision on government policies and/or American society

  17. The Civil Rights Movement Emmett Till “The horrific death of a Chicago teenager helped spark the civil rights movement” • In August 1955, a fourteen year old boy went to visit relatives near Money, Mississippi. • His Crime • When he showed some local boys a picture of a white girl who was one of his friends back home and bragged that she was his girlfriend, one of them said, "Hey, there's a [white] girl in that store there. I bet you won't go in there and talk to her.”Emmett went in and bought some candy. As he left, he said "Bye baby" to Carolyn Bryant, the wife of the store owner.

  18. The Civil Rights Movement Emmett Till • Although they were worried at first about the incident, the boys soon forgot about it. A few days later, two men came to the cabin of Mose Wright, Emmett's uncle, in the middle of the night. Roy Bryant, the owner of the store, and J.W. Milam, his brother-in-law, drove off with Emmett. Three days later, Emmett Till's body was found in the Tallahatchie River. One eye was gouged out, and his crushed-in head had a bullet in it. The corpse was nearly unrecognizable; Mose Wright could only positively identify the body as Emmett's because it was wearing an initialed ring.

  19. The Civil Rights Movement Emmett Till • At first, local whites as well as blacks were horrified by the crime. • Bryant and Milam were arrested for kidnapping even before Emmett's body was found • The Emmett Till case quickly attracted national attention.

  20. The Civil Rights Movement Emmett Till • Mamie Bradley, Emmett's mother, asked that the body be shipped back to Chicago. • Then, she insisted on an open-casket funeral, so that "all the world [could] see what they did to my son." • Over four days, thousands of people saw Emmett's body. Many more blacks across the country who might not have otherwise heard of the case were shocked by pictures of the that appeared inJetmagazine.

  21. The Civil Rights Movement Emmett Till • TTYN: Imagine you are an African American, what would be your response to the images of Emmett Till? • Whites in Mississippi resented the Northern criticism of the "barbarity of segregation" and the NAACP's labeling of the murder as a lynching.Five prominent lawyers stepped forward to defend Milam and Bryant, and officials who had at first denounced the murder began supporting the accused murderers. The two men went on trial in a segregated courthouse in Sumner, Mississippi on September 19, 1955.

  22. The Civil Rights Movement Emmett Till Do Now - Prediction Time: The Verdict Insert Bob Dylan Song The Death of Emmett Till http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lzw3vS9vHtQ

  23. The Civil Rights Movement Emmett Till: The Verdict • The prosecution had trouble finding witnesses willing to testify against the two men. At that time in Mississippi, it was unheard of for a black to publicly accuse a white of committing a crime. Finally, Emmett's sixty-four year old uncle Mose Wright stepped forward. When asked if he could point out the men who had taken his nephew that dark summer night, he stood, pointed to Milam and Bryant, and said "Dar he" -- "There he is." Wright's bravery encouraged other blacks to testify against the two defendants. All had to be hurried out of the state after their testimony.

  24. The Civil Rights Movement Emmett Till: The Verdict • In the end, however, even the incredible courage of these blacks did not make a difference. Defense attorney John C. Whitten told the jurors in his closing statement, "Your fathers will turn over in their graves if [Milam and Bryant are found guilty] and I'm sure that every last Anglo-Saxon one of you has the courage to free these men in the face of that [outside] pressure." • The jurors listened to him. They deliberated for just over an hour, then returned a "not guilty" verdict on September 23rd, the 166th anniversary of the signing of the Bill of Rights.

  25. The Civil Rights Movement

  26. The Civil Rights Movement The Two Phases of the Civil Rights Movement Phase One: The Non-Violent phase Phase Two: The Black Power phase

  27. K-W-L - The Civil Rights Movement What I Know About the CRM What I Want to Learn About the CRM What I Learned About the CRM

  28. The Civil Rights Movement Phase One: The Non-Violent phase

  29. Small Group Activity CSI: Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

  30. C.S.I. Montgomery Bus Boycott

  31. What is Included • CSI Case: Rosa Parks & Montgomery Bus Boycott • Plenty of Primary Sources • Rosa Parks and Montgomery Bus Boycott PowerPoint • DBQ

  32. CASE FILE The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a year long effort by blacks in Montgomery, AL to end segregation on city buses by boycotting the vehicles. Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott CLASSIFIED

  33. Activity Directions • Work Cooperatively • Read each document thoroughly • Use your Think Marks • Complete handout - “Detective Log” • Complete handout - “Questions to Consider” • Individually, complete a one-page summary • Have Fun!!!

  34. Detective Log

  35. Document A

  36. Document B NEGRO BOYCOTT FIGHTS COLOR LINE ON BUSES: Woman Fined in Row Over Segregation Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963); Dec 6, 1955;

  37. Document C AIR RIFLE IS FIRED AT BUS IN DISPUTE OVER SEGREGATION Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963); Dec 7, 1955;

  38. Document D BUS BOYCOTT CONTINUES: Alabama Line Rejects Negro Demands on Seating New York Times (1923-Current file); Dec 10, 1955;

  39. Document E

  40. Document F Image: They Walked To Freedom Montgomery Advertiser, 1956

  41. Questions to Consider

  42. Cracking the Case Based on your analysis of the documents and citing evidence to support your answer, please write a two-page summary, which answers the following questions: how did the arrest of Rosa Parks and the subsequent Montgomery Bus Boycott represent the struggle of African Americans throughout the South, what was the initial response from the plotical leaders of the South, what was the response from the U.S. Government?

  43. Civil Rights Leader - Rosa Parks

  44. Rosa Parks Who Was Rosa Parks? • She was born 4th February 1913, in Tuskegee, Alabama. • She grew up on a farm with her brother, mother and grandparents. • She worked as a seamstress after she left school. • Worked as a housekeeper for better-off white families • Worked as a secretary at the NAACP “She [Rosa Parks] is very quiet, determined, brave, and frugal, not all sophisticated and very churchgoing and orthodox in most of her thinking” – Virginia Foster (white woman who Rosa Parks worked for)

  45. Standing Up For Her Rights and Sitting Down For Justice Preparation: From Baton Rouge to Montgomery • June, 1953 – Blacks in Baton Rouge conducted a weeklong boycott of city buses. • Boycott cost Baton Rouge 1600/day • Result: Front Row for whites, long backseat for blacks, and open seating on the rest.

  46. Standing Up For Her Rights and Sitting Down For Justice Preparation: On 1st December 1955 after coming home from a hard days work, Rosa was sitting on the bus when the bus driver ordered her to give up her seat to a white man, who couldn’t find a seat in the “white section” of the bus. “I knew I had the strength of my ancestors with me.” -Rosa Parks “..some of us must bear the burden of trying to save the soul of America” - Martin Luther King

  47. A Montgomery (Ala.) Sheriff's Department booking photo of Rosa Parks

  48. Rosa Parks is fingerprinted by Dep. Sheriff D.H. Lackey in Montgomery, Ala., on Feb. 22, 1956, two months after she refused to give up her seat on a bus for a white passenger. Her action prompted the Montgomery bus boycott and sparked the civil rights movement.

  49. "Are you going to stand up?" the bus driver, James Blake, asked. "No," she answered. "Well, by God," the driver replied, "I'm going to have you arrested." "You may do that," Mrs Parks responded.