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Cell Organelles and Functions

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  1. Cell Organelles and Functions Chapter 7

  2. Cell Organelles – Read! • Get a book • Starting on page 196 • Read about the organelles / structures and answer the questions • It would be best to use pencil so you can make changes --- we will go over these • You will be assigned two or three at a time and then we will go over them. • You need to complete #1-3 to start.

  3. Book Assignment • Review of what we’ve already covered • Read pages 188-194 • #1-3

  4. http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/organelles/http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/organelles/

  5. Inner life of the cell movie

  6. 11/29 ATB • What is the function of the nucleus? What is found inside the nucleus? • Today: • Using the microscopes • Microscope refresher • Quiz next Tuesday or Wednesday on what we’ve covered this far

  7. Microscope Practice Assignment • Be careful with the scopes. • Be sure to write the total magnification for what you viewed • Be sure you use the correct color pencils. • Be sure you draw what you see in the field of view the same size as the circle on the page. • Make sure the letter “e” is facing you when you put it on the stage!!!

  8. Microscope Practice Assignment • Microscope clean up – what do you do? • When you are done, answer the questions on the back of the lab sheet • If you would like, you can look at other objects under the scope AFTER you are finished (like hair, paper with marks, etc)

  9. Depth of Focus

  10. 11-9 ATB • What is the function of the following: • Mitochondria – • Ribosomes - • Today: • Turn in microscope labs • Inner Life of Cell • Review the function of the cellular organelles • Laptops - cell structure diagrams • Quiz Friday!!! • Your organelle research is due! • Tomorrow: • Review for the quiz

  11. Directions • Get a laptop • Open Microsoft word • Use Google images to copy and paste the diagrams of the following things: • 1 Animal cell • 1 Plant cell • Mitochondria • Golgi apparatus • Nucleus with nucleolus and endoplasmic reticulum • Try to use pictures that don’t have a colored background • Print the page – ONE page only - this will be used as your way to study the structures

  12. 11-11-11 ATB • You’re name is Pauly (or Polly) the Protein and you are being excreted from the cell. Explain where you were produced and the different organelles you visited on the way to being sent through the cell membrane. • Today: • QUIZ!!! • Any last questions?

  13. 11-17 ATB • Describe why we stain the cells? • Today: • Onion cells with stain • Paramecium?? • Labs due tomorrow

  14. 11-18 ATB • What does the nucleolus produce? • Today: • Turn in labs! • Complete the last page of your worksheet packet (frayer) • Get you review sheets • Hand back graded stuff • On Wikispace  Practice test • Amazing Cells – Univ of Utah • http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/

  15. 11-21 ATB • When a cell engulfs food, it is put into a ______. The above structure then fuses with a _________ which will break the food down. The parts are then taken to the _______________ to be turned into energy, or _________. • Today: REVIEW GAME!

  16. Describe: Eukaryotic – Prokaryotic – Levels of Organization: Organism O_____________________ O_____________________ T_____________________ C_____________________ Cell Structure / Function: Compare / Contrast: Animal Cell – Plant Cell - Describe each on back: Nucleus Ribosome Endoplasmic Reticulum Nucleolus Golgi Apparatus Vacuole Lysosome Cell Membrane Mitochondria Cilia / Flagella

  17. Cell Organelle Review

  18. Plant Cell

  19. Cellular Organelles • Cell Organization

  20. Cytoplasm – • Portion of cell outside the nucleus • part of the cell including the fluid, the cytoskeleton and all organelles except nucleus • Organelle – • “little organs” • Specialized structures with specific function • Cytosol – • the cytoplasm that includes the ribosome's but not the membrane bound organelles – 20% protein

  21. Nucleus – • Contains most of cell DNA - instructions to make proteins • control center of cell– controlled by the code in your DNA • Nuclear Membrane / Envelope – • double membrane that surrounds the nucleus • Nuclear Pore – • protein lined holes in the nuclear membrane that allow RNA to enter / leave nucleus • Nucleolus – • Dense region of DNA that assembles / create ribosome’s

  22. Chromosome – • DNA coils to form chromatin – chromatin coils to form chromosomes • Chromatin is how the cell’s DNA is stored when not replicating • Chromatin coils to form chromosomes when replication is occurring

  23. Organelles that Store, Clean Up and Support

  24. Vacuole – • Large membrane-enclosed saclike structure • Stores materials like water, salts, proteins, carbs, etc. • Larger in plant cells than animal cells

  25. Central vacuole – • large organelle that stores water, enzymes, wastes, in a plant • Take up a large amount of the plant cell • If filled with water, how will plant stand? • Upright – if they are lacking water, plant will droop

  26. Vesicle – • Membrane-enclosed structure • Used to carry contents around, into / out of cell • Spherically shaped • Are materials moving into or out of the cell in the diagram below? • INTO

  27. Lysosome – • Small organelles filled with enzymes • (vesicle that contains digestive enzymesproduced by Golgi) • Digest organic materials, bacteria, etc • Break down lipids, carbohydrates and proteins so they can be used by the cell • Cytolysis or autolysis – lysosomes release enzymes to destroy the cell (old or malfunctioning cells)

  28. Cytoskeleton – • network of thin tubes / filaments that supports the cell / give it shape • Microfilament– • Threadlike structures that made of protein that support the cell • Microtubule– • hollow tubes made of protein that hold organelles in place and give the cell shape

  29. Intermediate filaments – • Rods that anchor nucleus and other organelles in place • Maintain internal shape of the nucleus • Make up most of your hair

  30. Centriole – • short cylinders that organize microtubules for cell division • Not found in plant cells

  31. Cilium – • Hair like structures that extend from the surface of cells • Assist in cell movement • Very numerous • Flagellum • Whip like structure that assist in movement • Usually less in number

  32. Organelles That Build Proteins

  33. Ribosome – • proteins that direct protein synthesis • Consist of two subunits

  34. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - • “intracellular highway” – moves stuff around the cell • Has a membrane and is composed of tubes and sacs • Rough ER – contains ribosome's • Thus produces proteins (some phospholipids) • Proteins produced then surrounded by vesicle from the ER and then transported around / out of cell • Smooth ER – lack ribosome's • Produce lipids and hormones in sex cells (estrogen & testosterone)

  35. ER

  36. Golgi Apparatus - • Flattened membranes and sacs • Receive vesicles from ER and modify them as the move through the Golgi (get “address labels”) • Vesicles then are sent to various locations • Create lysosomes

  37. Organelles that Capture and Release Energy

  38. Plastid – • plant organelles that have their own DNA and perform specific functions (Example: Chloroplasts) • Chloroplast – • Membrane bound organelle • use light energy from the sun to make carbohydrates (photosynthesis) • Thylakoids – • flat membranous sacs that contain chlorophyll (where photosynthesis takes place) • Chlorophyll – • green pigment that absorbs light energy in plants

  39. Mitochondria – • “Power house” of the cell • takes organic molecules and makes ATP (adenosine triphosphate) • Membrane bound organelle • Inner membrane has many folds for reactions to occur (called cristae) • Which cells would you think have the most mitochondria? • Muscle cells

  40. Cell Boundaries

  41. Cell wall – • rigid layer found outside plasma membrane • Supports / gives shape / protect the plant cell • Contain cellulose • Gives plants their structure • Is the cell wall porous? • Yes, it must allow certain needed substances to pass through (water, oxygen, CO2, others)

  42. Plasma / Cell membrane • Made of two layers of phospholipids (a bilayer) • Regulates what enters / leaves the cell • Helps protect cell from bacteriaand keep cell shape • Chemical communication with other cells • (Review) Phospholipid – contains hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic head