An organelle is a membrane-bound structure that carries out specific activities for the cell. Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o1GQyciJaTA Song: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-zafJKbMPA8
COMMON CELL TRAITS • A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.
COMPARING CELLS • The size & shape of a cell relates to its function. (job it does)
PROKARYOTIC CELLS(proh KAYR ee yah tihk) • cells without a nucleus • EX: Eubacteria and Archaebacteria pond scum
EUKARYOTIC CELLS(yew KAYR ee yah tihk) • cells with a nucleus • EX: animals, plants, fungi and protists • Prokaryotic vs. Eucaryotic interactive explanation • http://www.pisgahscience.com/holmescc/module4/pro_eukar.swf
ORGANELLES • Organelle = “little organ” • An organelle is a membrane-bound structure that carries out specific activities for the cell. • Found only inside eukaryotic cells
CELL WALL(Plant Cell Only) • Protects and supports • Gives shape • Stiff covering located outside of the cell membrane • Allows materials to pass through • A cell wall is found in plants, algae, fungi, & most bacteria cells.
CELL MEMBRANE • Outer covering, protective layer around ALL cells. • For cells with cell walls, the cell membrane is inside the cell wall. • Allows food, oxygen, & water into the cell & waste products out of the cell.
CYTOPLASM • Not an organelle • Cyto=cell • Translucent, grayish, jellylike • All organelles reside (live and float around in) the cytoplasm • Gelatin-like inside cell membrane • Constantly flows • Made mostly of water
NUCLEUS • Directs all cell activities • Contains instructions for everything the cell does • These instructions are found on a hereditary material called DNA • Usually the largest organelle • Easiest organelle to see under a microscope
CHLOROPLAST(Plant Cell Only) • Contains chlorophyll • Makes plants green • Uses light energy to make ATP & sugars • Photosynthesis takes place here
CHLOROPHYLL • A green chemicalthat gives leaves & stems their color • Captures sunlight energy that is used to produce food called glucose • Glucose is a type of sugar
MITOCHONDRIA • Organelles that release energy from food • This energy is released by breaking down food into carbon dioxide • A.k.a. the powerhouse b/c they release energy from food
RIBOSOMES • Make proteins • Float freely or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) • Ribosomes are made in the nucleus
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM • A.k.a. “ER” • A series of folded membranes that move materials (proteins) around in a cell • Like a conveyor belt • Smooth ER – ribosomes not attached to ER • Rough ER – ribosomes attached to ER
GOLGI COMPLEX • Stack of flat, pancake-shaped discs • Modify, sort, package, and store carbohydrates and proteins until they are needed. • Makes lysosomes
LYSOSOMES • Breaks down materials for digestion • Contains special enzymes for digestion in the cell • Garbage disposal of the cell
VACUOLE • Most plant cells have one large one • Filled w/ fluid • Temporary storage spaces • Stores food, water, waste • Song: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rABKB5aS2Zg
Plant and Animal Cells both have: • Cell Membrane • Nucleus • Cytoplasm with organelles
Plant and Animal Cell Differences • PLANT CELL • Has a cell wall which is thicker and tougher than a cell membrane. • Contains chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll and allows the plant to make its own food. • ANIMAL CELL • Does not contain a cell wall. • Does not contain chloroplasts.
Inside a Cell Tour: I like how you watch them change the cell from a animal cell to a plant cell. The difference between the two is made very obvious. • http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/insideacell/
Comparing a Factory to a Cell 1- Nucleus 2- Chromosomes 3- Mitochondria 4- Ribosomes 5- Chloroplasts 6- Vacuoles 8- Cell Membrane 7- ER
Quick Review • Which organelle is the control center of the cell? Nucleus • Which organelle holds the cell together? Cell membrane • Which organelles are not found in animal cells? Cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplasts • Which organelle helps plant cells make food? Chloroplasts • What does E.R. stand for? Endoplasmic reticulum
NAME THE ORGANELLE a. _________ c. ___________ b. ___________ d. ____________
NAME THE ORGANELLE a. Nucleus c. Golgi body b. Chloroplast d. Mitochondria