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Cell organelles

Cell organelles. Honors Biology. VOCAB. Cell Theory Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic Cells Organelle Cytoskeleton Nucleus Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes Golgi Appratus Vesicles Mitochondria Vacuoles Lysosomes Centrioloe Cell Wall Chloroplasts. Nucleus. 1. Contains DNA

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Cell organelles

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  1. Cell organelles Honors Biology

  2. VOCAB • Cell Theory Prokaryotic cells • Eukaryotic Cells Organelle • Cytoskeleton Nucleus • Endoplasmic Reticulum • Ribosomes Golgi Appratus • Vesicles Mitochondria • Vacuoles Lysosomes • CentrioloeCell Wall • Chloroplasts

  3. Nucleus 1. Contains DNA 2. Nucleoplasm 3. Controls functions of cell 4. Largest organelle 5. In all eukaryotic cells (both plant and animal)

  4. Nucleus • Nucleolus - “Dark spot”; makes ribosomes • Nuclear membrane - double phospholipid • Nuclear pore - allows RNA & some molecules in and out of nucleus

  5. Genetic material • When cell is not dividing the DNA is thread-like and called chromatin • When cell ready to divide the chromatin thickens to form chromosomes

  6. Cell membrane • Controls what goes in and out of cell • Proteins, cholesterol and other compounds in membrane - different functions • Phospholipids - double layer

  7. Cytoplasm • “Jelly-like substance” within cell • Organelles float within it

  8. Mitochondria • “Powerhouse” of the cell; muscle cells have many • Transfers energy from macromolecules into ATP (energy molecule) • Outer membrane and highly folder inner membrane (cristae) - increases surface area

  9. Mitochondrial DNA • Has own DNA and can reproduce from other mitochondria • Endosymbiotic theory – explains why has it’s own DNA

  10. Endosymbiotic theory • Theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts have evolved from ancient aerobic bacteria that were ingested by anaerobic bacteria. Evidence - mito. and chloro. both have circular DNA and replicate by binary fission, just like bacteria

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) • Highly folded tubes and sacs (called cisternae) • Rough type (has ribosomes) or smooth • Site where molecules are made (synthesized)

  12. Rough ER • Common in cells such as digestive glands • Makes phospholipids, proteins and digestive enzymes • Vesicles pinch off and transport products outside of or within cell

  13. Smooth ER • Makes lipids such as cholesterol • Makes estrogen (in ovaries) and testosterone (in testes) • Abundant in liver and kidney where it helps detoxify drugs and poisons

  14. Ribosomes • Site where proteins are made (synthesized) • Found on ER or floating freely in cytoplasm • Made in nucleolus; made of proteins and ribosomal RNA

  15. Golgi apparatus (or body) • Flattened stack of membranes (looks like stack of bowls) • “UPS” - Vesicles with unfinished lipids/proteins arrive from ER; Golgi finishes them, then sends them on their way via vesicles that pinch off

  16. Vacuole • Stores food, water and waste • Very large in plants

  17. “Cleaning” organelles • Lysosome – contains digestive enzymes to break down old parts; attacks viruses; made in Golgi • Peroxisome - detoxifies the cell (gets rid of toxic chemicals, such as hydrogen peroxide); lots in the liver

  18. Cytoskeleton • Maintains the shape of the cell • 1. Microtubule - • 2. Microfilament - • 3. Intermediate filaments - • Table 4.2 page 84

  19. Centrioles • Forms spindle fibers used during cell division

  20. Movement • Flagella - one to many long, whip-like tails (looks like a rat tail) • Cilia - many, short hair-like structures (looks like eyelashes)

  21. Plant Cells • Unlike Animal cells, Plant cells have cell walls, a large central vacuole, and plastids (such as chloroplasts)

  22. Cell Wall • Covers the cell membrane; is rigid and provides support and protection • Made mainly of cellulose

  23. Large central vacuole • Stores water, enzymes, and waste products and provides support for plant tissue

  24. Water loss • When water is lost from a plant cell, the vacuole can shrink but the cell wall keeps the cell from collapsing.

  25. Plastids • Store starch and pigments • Chloroplast converts light energy into chemical energy by photosynthesis; contains a green pigment - chlorophyll

  26. Bacteria • DNA is NOT inside a membrane bound nucleus • Pili- hair like appendage; used to attach to things • 3 basic shapes: rod, round, spiral

  27. Bacteria • Reproduces by binary fission • Very small compared to eukaryotes • Lack most membrane bound organelles, except ribosomes

  28. Plasmids Regular DNA or RNA • Circular bits of DNA found in prokaryotes • Independent from regular DNA and can replicate separately • Contain only a few genes that can be transferred to other bacteria Plastids

  29. Comparing

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