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Cell organelles

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  1. Cell organelles Honors Biology

  2. VOCAB • Cell Theory Prokaryotic cells • Eukaryotic Cells Organelle • Cytoskeleton Nucleus • Endoplasmic Reticulum • Ribosomes Golgi Appratus • Vesicles Mitochondria • Vacuoles Lysosomes • CentrioloeCell Wall • Chloroplasts

  3. Nucleus 1. Contains DNA 2. Nucleoplasm 3. Controls functions of cell 4. Largest organelle 5. In all eukaryotic cells (both plant and animal)

  4. Nucleus • Nucleolus - “Dark spot”; makes ribosomes • Nuclear membrane - double phospholipid • Nuclear pore - allows RNA & some molecules in and out of nucleus

  5. Genetic material • When cell is not dividing the DNA is thread-like and called chromatin • When cell ready to divide the chromatin thickens to form chromosomes

  6. Cell membrane • Controls what goes in and out of cell • Proteins, cholesterol and other compounds in membrane - different functions • Phospholipids - double layer

  7. Cytoplasm • “Jelly-like substance” within cell • Organelles float within it

  8. Mitochondria • “Powerhouse” of the cell; muscle cells have many • Transfers energy from macromolecules into ATP (energy molecule) • Outer membrane and highly folder inner membrane (cristae) - increases surface area

  9. Mitochondrial DNA • Has own DNA and can reproduce from other mitochondria • Endosymbiotic theory – explains why has it’s own DNA

  10. Endosymbiotic theory • Theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts have evolved from ancient aerobic bacteria that were ingested by anaerobic bacteria. Evidence - mito. and chloro. both have circular DNA and replicate by binary fission, just like bacteria

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) • Highly folded tubes and sacs (called cisternae) • Rough type (has ribosomes) or smooth • Site where molecules are made (synthesized)

  12. Rough ER • Common in cells such as digestive glands • Makes phospholipids, proteins and digestive enzymes • Vesicles pinch off and transport products outside of or within cell

  13. Smooth ER • Makes lipids such as cholesterol • Makes estrogen (in ovaries) and testosterone (in testes) • Abundant in liver and kidney where it helps detoxify drugs and poisons

  14. Ribosomes • Site where proteins are made (synthesized) • Found on ER or floating freely in cytoplasm • Made in nucleolus; made of proteins and ribosomal RNA

  15. Golgi apparatus (or body) • Flattened stack of membranes (looks like stack of bowls) • “UPS” - Vesicles with unfinished lipids/proteins arrive from ER; Golgi finishes them, then sends them on their way via vesicles that pinch off

  16. Vacuole • Stores food, water and waste • Very large in plants

  17. “Cleaning” organelles • Lysosome – contains digestive enzymes to break down old parts; attacks viruses; made in Golgi • Peroxisome - detoxifies the cell (gets rid of toxic chemicals, such as hydrogen peroxide); lots in the liver

  18. Cytoskeleton • Maintains the shape of the cell • 1. Microtubule - • 2. Microfilament - • 3. Intermediate filaments - • Table 4.2 page 84

  19. Centrioles • Forms spindle fibers used during cell division

  20. Movement • Flagella - one to many long, whip-like tails (looks like a rat tail) • Cilia - many, short hair-like structures (looks like eyelashes)

  21. Plant Cells • Unlike Animal cells, Plant cells have cell walls, a large central vacuole, and plastids (such as chloroplasts)

  22. Cell Wall • Covers the cell membrane; is rigid and provides support and protection • Made mainly of cellulose

  23. Large central vacuole • Stores water, enzymes, and waste products and provides support for plant tissue

  24. Water loss • When water is lost from a plant cell, the vacuole can shrink but the cell wall keeps the cell from collapsing.

  25. Plastids • Store starch and pigments • Chloroplast converts light energy into chemical energy by photosynthesis; contains a green pigment - chlorophyll

  26. Bacteria • DNA is NOT inside a membrane bound nucleus • Pili- hair like appendage; used to attach to things • 3 basic shapes: rod, round, spiral

  27. Bacteria • Reproduces by binary fission • Very small compared to eukaryotes • Lack most membrane bound organelles, except ribosomes

  28. Plasmids Regular DNA or RNA • Circular bits of DNA found in prokaryotes • Independent from regular DNA and can replicate separately • Contain only a few genes that can be transferred to other bacteria Plastids

  29. Comparing