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Cell Organelles

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  1. Cell Organelles Cytoplasm – matrix of the cell Membrane system – includes endoplasmic reticulum & golgi bodies Organelles – self-contained, membrane-bound structures such as nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts Vesicles – membrane-bound bubbles of liquid, including vacuoles, lysosomes, secretory and transport vesicles

  2. Cytoplasm (cytosol) • Gel-like matrix • Mainly composed of water • Contains proteins & other substances • Supports cell organelles

  3. Cell (plasma) membrane Surrounds cytoplasm and organelles and controls entry/exit of all substances (semi-permeable) • connects with membrane system within cell • phospholipidbilayer with proteins

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum Tube-like network from nucleus to membrane • Smooth ER - synthesis of lipids, including steroids, and calcium storage in muscles • Rough ER – has ribosomes for protein synthesis • Transport of proteins etc • Large surface area for ribosome attachment

  5. Golgi Bodies / apparatus Series of flattened hollow discs Packages proteins & lipids in pinched-off vesicles: • enzymes in lysosomes • add carbohydrate component to glycoproteins • mucus in goblet cells Allows transport of materials

  6. Vacuole • Cell sap - concentrated solution of sugars, salt and suspended proteins • Store • waste or • raw materials used in synthesis of proteins • Controls turgidity (how full or limp the cell is) • Plant cells usually have one very large vacuole, animal cells have a number of small vacuoles.

  7. Lysosome • Small round vesicles in animal cells • Store digestive enzymes (digest food molecules, worn-out organelles, engulfed bacteria etc) • Membrane-bound to prevent digestion of cell contents

  8. Nucleus Controls cell activities and contains genetic code • Contains chromosomes – lengths of DNA • Enclosed in nuclear envelope with pores • Matrix is nucleoplasm • Nucleolus makes ribosomes

  9. Mitochondria Respiration – breaks down food releasing energy to convert ADP to ATP • Double membrane • Folded inner membrane for increased surface area • Rod shaped • Has its own DNA

  10. Chloroplast Photosynthesis uses solar energy to synthesise energy rich food molecules • Plants & some other organisms • Green pigment Chlorophyll • Double membrane • Has its own DNA • Mainly around edge of cell

  11. Cell wall Tough, rigid outer structure for support • Found in plants, algae & bacteria (not animals) • Made mainly of cellulose • Outside of cell membrane

  12. Ribosomes • Tiny spherical organelles • If attached to endoplasmic reticulum forms rough ER (RER) • Protein synthesis (for cell use & secretion)

  13. MENU Quick Quiz Key Words Exercises MCQ Videos

  14. Key words Back to menu • Cells • Cytoplasm • Membrane systems • Cell membrane • Endoplasmic reticulum • Golgi apparatus • Vacuoles • plant vacuole • lysosomes • Nucleus • Mitochondria • Centrioles • Chloroplast • Cell wall • Ribosomes • Proteins • Lipids • Synthesis • Packaging • Control

  15. Quick quiz Back to menu Name the organelles with the following functions: • Control centre of the cell • Stores water and solutes • protein synthesis • supports other organelles • encloses all cells • surrounds plant cells • protein synthesis/transport • lipid synthesis • packages lipids and proteins • cellular respiration • photosynthesis • stores water and other substances • spindle formation Answers

  16. Quick quiz Back to menu • Control centre of the cell Nucleus • Stores water and solutesVacuole • protein synthesis Ribosomes • supports other organelles Cytoplasm • encloses all cells cell membrane • surrounds plant cells cell wall • protein synthesis/transport Rough ER • lipid synthesis Smooth ER • packages lipids and proteins Golgi apparatus • cellular respiration Mitochondria • photosynthesis Chloroplast • stores water and other substances Vacuole • spindle formation Centrioles

  17. Videos Back to menu • http://www.teachersdomain.org/asset/tdc02_vid_organelles/ • http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/6009-understanding-cells-the-organelles-video.htm (gen)

  18. Clickview • The cell: How it works (22 min) http://www.clickview.com.au/LinkStart/?videoid=2859

  19. Exercise Back to menu • Workbook pp 53-57, pp60-61 qq 1-5 • Pathfinder pp34-7 (or 38-40), qq1-4 • Booklet pp4-8 READING Excellence in Biology 117-124

  20. Question 1 Back to menu 17 Which of these structures controls cell division? • Cytoplasm • Nucleus • Cell membrane • Cell wall √

  21. 18 Question 2 Back to menu Which of these describes the plant vacuole contents? • A semi-liquid living material • A specialized region of cytoplasm • A region containing chloroplasts • A solution of salts and sugars √

  22. 19 Question 3 Back to menu Structure which controls the entry or exit of substances • the nucleus • The cell wall • The cell membrane • The cytoplasm √

  23. 20 Question 4 Back to menu Which one of these statements is correct? • Plant cells do not have cell walls • Plant cells have no vacuoles • Plant cells have nuclei • Animal cells have chloroplasts √

  24. 20 Question 5 Back to menu Which of the following is a function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum? • lipid synthesis • ATP production • protein packaging • cell control √

  25. 20 Question 6 Back to menu Which one of the following is a function of the Golgi body? • protein synthesis • phagocytosis • respiration • processing and packaging cellular products √

  26. 20 Question 7 Back to menu Where in the cell are steroids produced? • nucleus • smooth endoplasmic reticulum • rough endoplasmic reticulum • centrioles √

  27. 20 Question 8 Back to menu If a cell doubles in volume, its surface area...? • increases 8x • doubles • increases 4x • almost doubles √

  28. 20 Question 9 Back to menu Which of these statements is true regarding prokaryotes? • they have a nucleus, but no DNA • they have membrane-bound organelles • their chromosomes are loops • they lack ribosomes √

  29. 20 Question 10 Back to menu Which one of the following is not directly involved with synthesis or secretion? • lysosome • Golgi bodies • rough endoplasmic reticulum • ribosomes √

  30. 20 Question 11 Back to menu A cell with enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane and mitochondria could be.... • an animal cell but not a plant • a plant or animal cell • a bacterium • any living cell √

  31. 20 Question 12 Back to menu Which of the following has a double membrane? • vacuole • golgi body • lysosome • chloroplast √

  32. 20 Question 13 Back to menu Lysosomes are complex vesicles produced by.... • the nucleus • chloroplasts • endoplasmic reticulum • Golgi apparatus √

  33. 20 Question 14 Back to menu Large numbers of ribosomes would be found in cells producing ...? • steroids • starch • proteins • lipids √

  34. 20 Question 15 Back to menu Which of the following would be found in an animal cell, but not a bacterium? • endoplasmic reticulum • cell wall • DNA • plasma membrane √

  35. 21 Answer Back to menu Incorrect X

  36. 22 Answer Back to menu Correct √

  37. Centriole Responsible for spindle formation during mitosis. • rod-like structures • found in most animal cells

  38. Great Wall of China protects the Chinese Which part of a plant cell does this job? Cell wall The cell wall is tough and firm and protects the plant cell

  39. An arena fence controls what gets in and out Which part of a cell does this job? Cell membrane The cell membrane surrounds the cell and keeps the cell together. Controls what goes in & out of the cell

  40. The sponge of a fruit cake keeps the fruit in place Which part of a cell does this job? cytoplasm The cytoplasm of a cell keeps the organelles in place Gel-like, composed mainly of water

  41. A thermos stores food and liquids. Which part of a cell does this job? vacuole Vacuole stores food & water Large and irregular Filled with cell sap (water with sugar and salts etc)

  42. A boss controls the functions of the office Which part of a cell does this job? nucleus The nucleus of a cell tells the rest of the organelles how to function Contains all the cell’s DNA

  43. A power plant gives energy to a city Which part of a cell does this job? The mitochondria is the energy factory of the cell Breaks down food to make ATP – tiny energy-filled packages mitochondria

  44. The cattle farmer produces proteins for meat eaters Which part of a cell does this job? ribosomes Ribosomes make proteins Often attached to endoplasmic reticulum.

  45. A gift-wrap store processes and wraps gifts Which part of a cell does this job? The golgi body packages proteins and fats Golgi body

  46. A chef makes high energy food. Which part of a cell does this job? Chloroplasts make food for the cell Contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis chloroplast

  47. The insinkeratorbreaks down waste Which part of a cell does this job? lysosomes Lysosomes contain enzymes to digest damaged cell organelles and other unwanted cell content

  48. The underground forms a network of tunnels for transport. Which part of a cell does this job? Endoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic reticulum is involved with making and transporting proteins.