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Cell Organelles

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  1. Cell Organelles Unit 2: Cells Ch. 7-2

  2. Let’s Review! • Two cell types • Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells) • Eukaryotes (Eukaryotic Cells)

  3. Prokaryotes - Bacteria • No Nucleus • No Membrane bound organelles.

  4. Eukaryotes Nucleus • Have a nucleus • Have membrane bound organelles

  5. Two Types of Eukaryotic Cells • Animal Cell • Plant Cell • Both cells function similarly

  6. Cell Organelles • Organelle = “little organs” • Specialized structures that perform specific jobs in the cell • Found only in eukaryotic cells • Many are “membrane-bound”(a membrane surrounds the organelle) • All the stuff in between the organelles is cytosol • Everything in a cell except the nucleus is cytoplasm

  7. Cell Membrane • Surrounds the cell and decides what comes in and out • Semi-permeable: allows nutrients in and waste products out • Made of a phospholipid bilayer • Also called Plasma Membrane

  8. Factory Part: • Gates or Doors • Found in: • Plant cells • Animal cells • Prokaryotic cells

  9. Nucleus • Control center of the cell • Stores DNA (chromosomes) • Surrounded by the nuclear membrane • Pores let material in and out • Also contains the Nucleolus, which makes ribosomes

  10. Factory Part: • Manager’s Office • Found in: • Plant cells • Animal cells

  11. Ribosome • Smallest organelle • NOT surrounded by a membrane • Makes proteins according to DNA instructions. • Two Types: • Free ribosomes: float free in cytosol • Bound ribosomes: attached to rough ER

  12. Factory Part: • Machines • Found in: • Plant cells • Animal cells • Prokaryotic cells

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum • Transport system for materials in cell • Two Types: • Rough ER: covered with ribosomes; site of protein synthesis • Smooth ER: NO ribosomes; it makes hormones & lipids

  14. Factory Part: • Conveyor Belts • Found in: • Plant cells • Animal cells

  15. Golgi Apparatus • Delivery system of the cell • Collects, modifies, and packages molecules in the cell • Distributes and transports molecules in vesicles

  16. Factory Part: • Post office or Mail Room • Found in: • Plant cells • Animal cells

  17. Lysosomes • Clean-up crew of the cell • Contain digestive enzymes that break down macromolecules for the cell to use • Removes waste particles

  18. Factory Part: • Janitors • Found in: • Plant cells • Animal cells

  19. Mitochondria • “Powerhouse” of the cell • Site of cellular respiration • Convertsenergy stored in food into energy the cell needs – ATP Sugar + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + ATP ATP = Adenosine triphosphate

  20. Factory Part: • Power Plant / Electrical Room • Found in: • Plant cells • Animal cells

  21. Chloroplast • Site of photosynthesis • Changes sunlight energy into chemical energy (glucose) • Contains green pigment, chlorophyll • Found only in plant cells and algae Sunlight + Carbon Dioxide + Water Sugar + Oxygen

  22. Factory Part: • Solar Powered Energy Panels • Found in: • Plant cells

  23. Cell Wall • Rigid, protective barrier (maintains cell shape) • Found in plant and bacterial cells • Located outside of the cell membrane • Made of cellulose (Carbohydrate fiber)

  24. Factory Part: • Factory Gates • Found in: • Plant cells • Some Prokaryote cells

  25. Vacuoles • Storage tank • Holds water, food, enzymes, wastes, etc • Large central vacuole usually in plant cells • Supports cell shape in plants • Many smaller vacuoles in animal cells

  26. Factory Part: • Storage room • Found in: • Plant cells • Animal cells (smaller)

  27. Quick Review • Which organelle is the control center of the cell? Nucleus • Which organelle holds the cell together? Cell membrane • Which organelles are not found in animal cells? Cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplasts • Which organelle helps plant cells make food? Chloroplasts • What does E.R. stand for? Endoplasmic reticulum

  28. Cell City Analogy • Cell OrganellesCity Analogies • Cell Membrane City border • Cell Wall City Wall • Cytoplasm Lawns • Endoplasmic Reticulum Highway or road system • Ribosomes Lumber or brick yard • Golgi Bodies Post Office or UPS • Chloroplasts Solar Energy Plants • Nuclear Membrane City Hall Fence with security guard • Mitochondria Energy Plants • Nucleus City Hall • DNA Original Blueprints or the city • RNA Copies of Blueprints • Nucleolus Copy Machine • Lysosomes Waste Disposal/ Recyclers • Vacuole Warehouses, water towers or garbage dumps • Protoplasm Air or atmosphere • Chromosomes Rolled up blueprints • Proteins Lumber or bricks