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Individual Views of Delinquency

Individual Views of Delinquency. Choice Theory and Classical Criminology The Rational Delinquent Shaping Delinquent Choices Personal Freedom Getting a Job Joining a Gang Choosing Delinquent Acts The Seductions of Crime. Individual Views of Delinquency. Routine Activities

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Individual Views of Delinquency

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  1. Individual Views of Delinquency • Choice Theory and Classical Criminology • The Rational Delinquent • Shaping Delinquent ChoicesPersonal FreedomGetting a JobJoining a Gang • Choosing Delinquent Acts • The Seductions of Crime

  2. Individual Views of Delinquency • Routine Activities • Preventing Delinquency • Deterrence and Delinquency • Situational Crime Prevention • Why Do Delinquents Choose Crime? • Trait Theories: Biosocial and Psychological Views

  3. Individual Views of Delinquency • Psychological Theories of Delinquency • Psychodynamic Theory • Behavioral Theory • Cognitive Theory

  4. Individual Views of Delinquency • Contemporary Trait Theory • Learning Disabilities • Arousal Theory • Genetic InfluencesParent/Child Similarities Sibling and Twin SimilaritiesAdoption Studies

  5. Individual Views of Delinquency • Contemporary Trait Theory • Learning Disabilities • Arousal Theory • Genetic InfluencesParent/Child Similarities Sibling and Twin SimilaritiesAdoption Studies

  6. Functionalism • Emile Durkheim’s The Rules of the Sociological Method • Deviance as NormalBoundary Setting FunctionGroup Solidarity FunctionInnovative FunctionTension Reduction FunctionLatent Function

  7. Functionalism • Wayward Puritans and Functionalism • Assessment of FunctionalismOverly Mechanistic View of Society Circularity of Functional AnalysisConservative Bias

  8. Social Disorganization • The Chicago School emphasized “social causation” • Deviance is a natural byproduct of rapid social change • Disorganization is a step toward reorganization • Normative Consensus is replaced by “Disensus”

  9. Social Disorganization • The Dynamics of Disorganization:W.I. Thomas • The Polish Peasant in Europe and AmericaThomas and Florian Znaniecki • The Ecology of Disorganization: Robert Park and Ernest Burgess (Social Ecology) • Invasion-Succession Model (invasion, conflict, accommodation, assimilation)

  10. Social Disorganization • Park’s “Natural Areas” • Concentric Zone model • Clifford Shaw and Henry Mckay’sDelinquency Areas • Social Disorganization and Mental IllnessH. Warren Dunham and Robert FarisDownward Drift Hypothesis

  11. Anomie • Emile Durkheim • Robert Merton’s Modes of AdaptationDisparity between promises of prosperity and opportunity to realize success“A cardinal American virtue, ambition, promotes a cardinal American vice, Deviant Behavior.”

  12. Anomie • ConformityInnovationRitualismRetreatismRebellionism • Cloward and Ohlin’s Differential Opportunity

  13. Anomie/Strain Theories • Albert Cohen’s Strain Theory Non-UtilitarianismShort Run HedonismGroup Autonomy Middle Class Measuring Rods Reaction Formation Mobilization for Youth Program as application of theory to practice.

  14. Anomie/Strain Theories • Assessment of Anomie TheoryMerton’s work one of the most cited papers in all of sociology over a 20 yr. periodPopular bc it holds out the possibility that crime can be eradicated (because people are basically good) Weaknesses: Cohen’s theory…Too atomistic and “places undue emphasis on the discontinuity of the deviant acts” Whatever does that mean?

  15. Anomie/Strain Theories • Weaknesses: 1.Merton’s explanation is incomplete: how do goals and means get defined in the first place? 2.Merton does not tell us why some people who are frustrated keep from committing crimes. 3. He exaggerated the homogeneity and solidarity of social class. 4. He does not specify why some people commit one kind of crime while others choose different types

  16. Anomie • Criminal gangsConflict gangsRetreatist gangs--double failures • Cohen’s Strain TheoryMaliciousnessNegativism

  17. Social Learning Theories • Gabriel Tarde’s Theory of ImitationLaw of Close ContactLaw of Imitation of Superiors by InferiorsLaw of Insertion • Edwin Sutherland’s Differential AssociationExposure Theory

  18. Social Learning Theories • Differential Association1. Learn to define certain situations as criminal2. Master techniques3. Master motives, attitudes, and rationalizations

  19. Social Learning Theories • Factors Influencing BehaviorFrequencyDurationPriorityIntensity • Techniques of Neutralization/Drift TheoryDavid Matza and Gresham Sykes

  20. Social Learning Theories • Drift Theory Elements:Denial of ResponsibilityDenial of InjuryDenial of VictimAppeal to Higher LoyaltiesCondemn the Condemners

  21. Drift Theory • Carl Klockars’s The Professional Fence • Apologia Pro Vita Sua Vocabulary of Motives/Techniques of Neutralization Denial of Responsibility: Never stole anything himself..fencing would take place even if he didn’t do it

  22. The Professional Fence Denial of Victim: Respectable society buys from him. Claims he has good relations with the police and judges…some of them buy from him. Denial of Injury: Insurance companies charge high premiums so who really gets hurt?

  23. Assessment of Learning Perspective • Enormous impact on study of crime and social control. • Normalizes our images of criminals, they are fellow human beings

  24. Assessment of Learning Perspective • Crime/Deviance is neither abnormal condition nor the product of abstract social forces…it is concrete and the product of learning to be in the world in a particular way, learning with and from others about how to define, feel and act.

  25. Assessment of Learning Perspective • Overly deterministic learning—don’t blindly run into criminal subcultures. They do it because of the chance for respect/rewards. • Matza says that crime can best be understood as partly chosen, partly determined…soft determinism

  26. Assessment of Learning Perspective • Overemphasis on Personal Associations (as opposed to secondary ones like movies or news media) in the learning of criminal behavior. Copycat killers didn’t learn it from another killer…saw it on news but still learned it. • Some say it does not apply to certain types of criminal behavior, impulsive violence.

  27. Assessment of Learning Perspective • Does not account for why a person associates with certain types of people in the first place

  28. The Labeling Perspective • Three Interrelated Concerns:1)Social-Historical Development of Labels2)Application of labels3)Practical Consequences of Labeling Process

  29. The Labeling Perspective • Mead’s Psychology of Punitive Justice • Tannenbaum’s Crime and Community • Lemert’s Social Pathology • Becker’s The Outsiders and The Other Side • Why was this Perspective so popular in the 1960s?

  30. The Labeling Perspective • Labeling Perspective has Different Focus from Other Theories of Deviance • Becker’s Issues with the Processmoral entrepeneurs • Becker’s Sequential Model of Deviance • Deviance as a Master Status

  31. The Labeling Perspective • Primary and Secondary DevianceLabeling Amplifies Deviance • Retrospective Interpretation • Goffman’s Stigma • So Why Do We Label?

  32. The Labeling Perspective • Can You Recover from a Label? • What About Rejecting a Label? • Notion of Power: Links to Conflict Theory

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