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2. Life Course Theory. Developmental theory is the view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristicsLife course theory is a developmental theory that focuses on changes in behavior as people travel along the path of life and how these changes affect crime and delinquency..
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1. 1 Chapter 5 Developmental Views of Delinquency
2. 2 Life Course Theory Developmental theory is the view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristics
Life course theory is a developmental theory that focuses on changes in behavior as people travel along the path of life and how these changes affect crime and delinquency.
3. 3 Life Course Theory People have multiple traits: social, psychological, economic
People change over the life course
Family job, peers influence behavior
Criminal careers are a passage
Personal and structural factors influence crime
4. 4 Life Course Concepts Age of onset
Early onset is the view that kids who begin engaging in antisocial behaviors at a very early age are the ones most at risk for a delinquency career.
Adolescent –limited offenders follow the most common delinquency trajectory, in which antisocial behavior peaks in adolescence and then diminishes.
Life course persister offender continues delinquency well into adulthood.
5. 5 Problem Behavior Syndrome A cluster of antisocial behaviors that may include:
Precocious sexuality and early pregnancy
6. 6 Multiple Pathways Life course theorists recognize that delinquency may travel more than a single road in their delinquent career
Authority conflict pathway
7. 7 Age-Graded Theory Turning points are critical life events, such as career and marriage, which may enable adult offenders to desist form delinquency.
Social capital are the positive relations with individuals and institutions that support conventional behavior and inhibit deviant behavior.
Finding a good job may lead to a conventional life
Findings supportive attachments
8. 8 Latent Trait Theory A stable trait, such as defective intelligence or impulsive personality, makes some people delinquency-prone over the life course.
People have a master trait
People do not change
Early social control and proper parenting can reduce criminal propensity
Change affects crime
Unchanging personal factors such as low self-control are more important determinants of behavior
9. 9 Latent Trait Theory Social development model (SDM) is a developmental theory that attributes delinquent behavior patterns to childhood socialization and pro- or antisocial attachments over the life course.
Interactional theory is a developmental theory that attributes delinquent trajectories to mutual reinforcement between delinquents and significant others over the life course.
10. 10 General Theory of Crime (GTC) A developmental theory that modifies social control theory by integrating concepts from biosocial, psychological, routine activities, and rational choice theories
Self-control refers to a person’s ability to exercise restraint and control over his or her feelings, emotions, reactions, and behaviors.
Impulsive is lacking in thought or deliberation in decision making.
An impulsive person lacks close attention to details, has organizational problems, is distracted and forgetful.
11. 11 Supporting GTC Some elements of Impulsivity:
12. 12 Criticism and Questions of GTC Circular reasoning
Does not recognize personality disorders
Fails to address ecological-individual differences
Do not adequately address racial and gender differences
People change and so does their level of self-control
13. 13 Evaluating Development Theory Developmental theory and prevention
Programs that feature multisystemic treatment
SMART Kids/SMART Parents
Programs are designed to reduce specific risk factors in the child’s school, family, community, and personal environment.