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Developmental Views of Delinquency PowerPoint Presentation
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Developmental Views of Delinquency

Developmental Views of Delinquency

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Developmental Views of Delinquency

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    1. 1 Chapter 5 Developmental Views of Delinquency

    2. 2 Life Course Theory Developmental theory is the view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristics Life course theory is a developmental theory that focuses on changes in behavior as people travel along the path of life and how these changes affect crime and delinquency.

    3. 3 Life Course Theory People have multiple traits: social, psychological, economic People change over the life course Family job, peers influence behavior Criminal careers are a passage Personal and structural factors influence crime

    4. 4 Life Course Concepts Age of onset Early onset is the view that kids who begin engaging in antisocial behaviors at a very early age are the ones most at risk for a delinquency career. Adolescent limited offenders follow the most common delinquency trajectory, in which antisocial behavior peaks in adolescence and then diminishes. Life course persister offender continues delinquency well into adulthood.

    5. 5 Problem Behavior Syndrome A cluster of antisocial behaviors that may include: Family dysfunction Substance abuse Smoking Precocious sexuality and early pregnancy Educational under-achievement Suicide attempts Sensation seeking Unemployment Delinquency

    6. 6 Multiple Pathways Life course theorists recognize that delinquency may travel more than a single road in their delinquent career Authority conflict pathway Covert pathway Overt pathway

    7. 7 Age-Graded Theory Turning points are critical life events, such as career and marriage, which may enable adult offenders to desist form delinquency. Social capital are the positive relations with individuals and institutions that support conventional behavior and inhibit deviant behavior. Finding a good job may lead to a conventional life Findings supportive attachments

    8. 8 Latent Trait Theory A stable trait, such as defective intelligence or impulsive personality, makes some people delinquency-prone over the life course. People have a master trait People do not change Early social control and proper parenting can reduce criminal propensity Change affects crime Unchanging personal factors such as low self-control are more important determinants of behavior

    9. 9 Latent Trait Theory Social development model (SDM) is a developmental theory that attributes delinquent behavior patterns to childhood socialization and pro- or antisocial attachments over the life course. Interactional theory is a developmental theory that attributes delinquent trajectories to mutual reinforcement between delinquents and significant others over the life course.

    10. 10 General Theory of Crime (GTC) A developmental theory that modifies social control theory by integrating concepts from biosocial, psychological, routine activities, and rational choice theories Self-control refers to a persons ability to exercise restraint and control over his or her feelings, emotions, reactions, and behaviors. Impulsive is lacking in thought or deliberation in decision making. An impulsive person lacks close attention to details, has organizational problems, is distracted and forgetful.

    11. 11 Supporting GTC Some elements of Impulsivity:

    12. 12 Criticism and Questions of GTC Circular reasoning Does not recognize personality disorders Fails to address ecological-individual differences Do not adequately address racial and gender differences People change and so does their level of self-control

    13. 13 Evaluating Development Theory Developmental theory and prevention Programs that feature multisystemic treatment SMART Kids/SMART Parents Programs are designed to reduce specific risk factors in the childs school, family, community, and personal environment.