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Correlates of delinquency

Correlates of delinquency

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Correlates of delinquency

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  1. Correlates of delinquency • Gender • Differences • Aggression • Anger vs. depression • Visual spatial vs. verbal skills • Competition vs. relationships • Reasons: nature vs. nurture

  2. Gender • Masculinity hypothesis • Precocious sexuality • Hormonal differences; testosterone vs. premenstrual syndrome, leading to aggression • Evolutionary differences

  3. Gender • Socialization differences • Chivalry hypothesis • Fallen/evil women • Differences in socialization expectations and level of supervision • Social backgrounds of male and female differences are similar

  4. Gender • Violent behavior • 9:1 • Boys more likely to use a gun • Both tend to assault/kill people they know • Property crime/drugs • 5:1, more common among females

  5. Family & delinquency • Changing American family • Family composition • Working and child care • Economics • Child abuse and neglect

  6. Correlates of delinquency • Attachment: affectional tie between adult and child • Normally appears during the first few months of life; noticeable around 4-5 months • Two way street: adaptive value

  7. Attachment • Necessary to growth (failure to thrive syndrome) and development (cognitive) • Children who do not form an attachment during the first two years of life typically have behavioral problems, difficulties in relationships and do more poorly in school • Attachment helps parent to control the child; approval/disapproval has an impact

  8. Correlates • Delinquency more frequently associated with lack of attachment, on the part of child and/or parent • Parents more likely not to “follow through” on efforts for their children • Attachment associated with: babies that are attractive, easy to take care of, stable environment

  9. Attachment • Lack of attachment associated with: difficult babies, sick or premature babies, chaotic environment • Recent research suggests that providing very early interventions with high risk mothers, home visits, etc., has an impact on later delinquency

  10. Discipline • Hallmark is inconsistent discipline • Not necessarily a lack of discipline, as is commonly thought • Inconsistency in terms of rewards for desired behaviors, punishment for undesired behaviors

  11. Supervision • Delinquency associated with lack of supervision/neglect • Lack of supervision might be associated with lack of attachment • Parents who keep close tabs on where their children are, who they are with, and monitor frequently, are less likely to produce delinquents

  12. Family structure • Large family size associated with delinquency, particularly among the poor • Middle children • Having older male siblings, particularly if they are delinquent • Having older sisters is protective (may be a supervision factor)

  13. Parental deviance • Parental deviance (criminality, substance abuse) associated with delinquency • Related problems: ADHD, alcoholism have a genetic basis and may be associated with delinquency • 8% of youths with noncriminal fathers become delinquent, vs. 37% of those with criminal fathers

  14. Parental deviance • Maternal depression associated with delinquency (might involve lack of supervision) • Alcoholism and substance abuse are associated with neglect, lack of supervision and delinquency

  15. Broken homes