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Juvenile Delinquency

Juvenile Delinquency

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Juvenile Delinquency

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  1. Juvenile Delinquency Week 3 • This week we will be talking about Developmental Views of Delinquency (Chapter 5) and Gender and Delinquency (Chapter 6) • What’s New? • Any questions or problems? • You are doing fabulously!!!!! Thank you.

  2. PowerPoint Analysis Assignment (5-6 Slides) Visit the NCJRS website and explore Women & Girls in the Criminal Justice System - Programs. Identify the components of the diversionary program and initiatives within the NCJRS website- Woman & Girls in the Criminal Justice System. REMEMBER TO DOCUMENT YOUR SOURCES!!! • Compare and contrast State and local programs as they contribute to successful reintegration and transition services. • Analyze trends and patterns of these programs as they contribute to reduced recidivism. • Relate the trends and patterns to the programs overall validity and effectiveness. • Create a PowerPoint presentation (5-6 slides) summarizing the above information. Submit Your Assignment via Dropbox

  3. Chapter Goals - Chapter 5 • Compare and contrast the two forms of Developmental Theory • Trace the history of, and influences on, Developmental Theory • Know the principles of the life course approach to Developmental Theory • Be familiar with the concept of Problem Behavior Syndrome

  4. The Developmental process • A positive life experience may help some kids desist from delinquency • Delinquent careers are also said to be interactional because people are influenced by behavior of those around them • Life course theories also recognize that as people mature, the factors that influence their behavior change

  5. Life Course Concepts • We know that most young criminals desist and do not become adult offenders • Most of these early onset delinquents begin their careers with disruptive behaviors • The earlier the onset, the more likely the adolescent will engage in serious delinquency

  6. What’s in a name? • Can the name you give your child actually increase their chances of becoming a criminal? • Let’s see. We are going to take a field trip (I hope you all brought your permission slips). • On the next slide, you will see an IP address. Click on it, view the video, and then come back to class – no sneaking out to the refrigerator for a snack on the way back!

  7. Web Field Trip! • Click on this cite below and check out the short video: • http://current.com/1fq864c

  8. Adolescent-Limited Offenders versus Life Course Limited Offenders • Not all persistent offenders begin at an early age • A few even skip antisocial behavior in their childhood • In contrast life course persistent offenders remain high-rate offenders into young adulthood

  9. Problem Behavior Syndrome • The life course view is that delinquency is but one of many social problems faced by at-risk youth • Youths who drink in the late elementary school years, who are aggressive and have attention problems are more likely to be offenders during adolescence

  10. Multiple Pathways • Life Course theorist recognize that delinquents may travel more than a single road in their delinquent career • The authority conflict pathway begins at an early age with stubborn behavior • The covert pathway begins with minor, underhanded behavior that leads to property damage

  11. Continuity of Crime and Delinquency • The best predictor of future criminality is past criminality • Research shows that kids who persist engage in more aggressive acts and are continually involved in theft offenses and aggression • As they emerge into adulthood, they report less emotional support

  12. Turning Points in Life Course • Two critical turning points are career and marriage • Adolescents who are at risk for delinquency can live conventional lives if they can find good jobs or achieve successful careers • People who cannot sustain secure marital relations are more likely to continue with delinquency

  13. Testing this Theory • Research has shown that children who grow up in two parent homes are more likely to have happier marriages • Youths who accumulate social capital (strong quality relationships) in childhood are most likely to maintain steady work as adults

  14. Love and Delinquency • Age-graded theory places a lot of emphasis on the stability brought about by romantic relationships leading eventually to a good marriage • Kids headed toward a life of crime can knife off that path if they meet the right mate • Love is a primary conduit of informal social control

  15. The Latent Trait View • The propensity or inclination to commit delinquency is stable, but the opportunity fluctuates over time • People age out of delinquency because, as they mature, they are simply fewer opportunities to commit such acts • Those who carry one of these traits are in danger of becoming career criminals • Latent trait theories hold that some underlying condition present at birth or soon after controls behavior. Suspect traits include low IQ, impulsivity, and personality structure. This underlying trait explains the continuity of offending because, once present, it remains with a person throughout his or her life

  16. General Theory of Crime • Delinquency is rational and predictable • Delinquent offenders are predisposed to commit crimes • Delinquent acts, such as robberies or burglaries, are illegal events or deeds that people engage in when they perceive them to be advantageous

  17. Testing the General Theory of Crime • One approach involves identifying indicators of impulsiveness and self-control • Impulsivity predicts the likelihood that a person will engage in criminal behavior • Another study has found that victims have lower self-control than non-victims

  18. Questions? • And questions on these theories? • If not, we will move on to chapter 6. Chapter 6Gender and Delinquency

  19. Pop Quiz • I know this is going to be tough (especially with all the overachievers in this class), but DO NOT BLURT OUT (or type) your answers to these questions – wait for everyone to respond to the poll. • What is the fastest growing group in prison?

  20. Chapter Goals • Be able to discuss the development of interest in female delinquency • Be familiar with the gender differences in development • Discuss the basis of gender differences • Know the trends in gender differences in the delinquency rate

  21. Gender Differences in Development • It is possible that the gender-based traits that shape antisocial behavior choices may exist as early as infancy • Baby girls show greater control over their emotions • Boys are more easily angered and depend more on input from their mothers

  22. Socialization Differences • Psychologist believe that differences in the way females and males are socialized affect their development • Males learn to value independence • Because so many relationships go sour, females also run the risk of feeling alienated because of the failure to achieve relational success

  23. Cognitive Differences • There are cognitive differences between males and females starting in childhood • Gender group strengths found in the early school years become more established at adolescence and remain stable through adulthood • Males excel in tasks that asses the ability to manipulate visual images in working memory

  24. Personality Differences • Girls are often stereotyped as talkative, but research shows that in many situations boys spend more time talking than girls do • Females are willing to reveal their feelings and concerns for others

  25. What Causes Gender Differences? • Socialization, cognitive, personality • Females tend to blame themselves in relationships • Males are aggressive, independent, and practice external anger

  26. Gender Differences and Delinquency • Regardless of their origin, gender distinctions may partly explain the significant gender differences in the delinquency rate • Males view aggression as an appropriate means to gain status • Males seem more aggressive and less likely to form attachments to others

  27. Gender Patterns in Delinquency • Both the juvenile and adult crime rates for both males and females have been in decade-long decline • While males still commit more delinquency than females, there are indications that the gender gap in crime and delinquency arrests is narrowing

  28. Trait Views • There is a long tradition of tracing gender differences in delinquency to traits that are uniquely male or female • The argument that biological and psychological differences between males and females can explain differences in crime rates is not a new one

  29. Contemporary Psychological Views • Girls are socialized to be less aggressive than boys • Research indicates that antisocial adolescent girls do suffer a wide variety of psychiatric problems • Female delinquents score high on psychological tests

  30. Socialization Views • Socialization views are based on the idea that a child’s social development may be the key to understanding delinquent behavior • If a child experiences impairment, family disruption, and so on, the child will be more susceptible to delinquent associations • Advanced sexuality at an early age makes girls vulnerable to older men who lead them down a path to decadence

  31. Contemporary Socialization Views • Contemporary investigators continue to support the view that female delinquents have more dysfunctional home lives than males • Girls may be forced into a life of sexual promiscuity • Many girls find themselves pregnant at an early age

  32. Socialization and Gangs • There is a significant body of literature linking home lives to gang participation and crime • Joan Moore’s analysis of gang girls in Los Angeles found that many came from troubled homes

  33. Liberal Feminist Views • The feminist movement has, from its origins, fought to help women break away from their traditional roles • Liberal feminists have influenced thinking about delinquency • Female criminality is motivated by the same influences as male criminality

  34. Gender and the Juvenile Justice System • Gender differences not only have an effect on crime patterns, but also may have a significant impact on the way children are treated by the criminal justice system • Several feminist scholars argue that girls are not only the victims of injustice at home, but also risk being victimized by agents of the justice system • Female delinquents were substantially more likely to have been detained for status offenses before final juvenile court disposition or afterward

  35. Questions? • Any Questions on Chapter 6?