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Introduction to Neuroanatomy. Structure-function relationships Localization of function in the CNS Non-invasive brain imaging CAT: structure, low resolution MRI: structure, high resolution PET: function, low resolution f MRI: function, high resolution.

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introduction to neuroanatomy
Introduction to Neuroanatomy
  • Structure-function relationships
    • Localization of function in the CNS
  • Non-invasive brain imaging
    • CAT: structure, low resolution
    • MRI: structure, high resolution
    • PET: function, low resolution
    • fMRI: function, high resolution
dual approach to learning neuroanatomy
Dual approach to learning neuroanatomy:
  • Functional anatomy
    • Neural structures that serve particular functions; e.g., pain path from skin to cortex for perception
  • Regional anatomy
    • Localization of structures in particular brain regions
lecture objectives
Lecture objectives:
  • Overview of brain structures to “demystify” anatomical content in Neural Science lectures
  • Survey brain structure-function relations to provide background for first labs

First half of lecture:

  • Quick review of basic CNS organization
  • Use development to understand principles of structural organization of CNS

Second half: Functional localization

cns organizational principles
CNS Organizational Principles
  • 1) Tubular organization of central nervous system
  • 2) Columnar/longitudinal organization of spinal and cranial nerve nuclei
  • 3) Complex C-shaped organization of cerebral cortex and deep structures
brief overview of mature cns neuroanatomy

Nuclei: locations of neuron cell bodies w/in the central nervous system

Ganglia: locations of neuron cell bodies in the periphery

Tracts: locations of axons w/in the central nervous system

Nerves: locations of axons in the periphery

Brief Overview of Mature CNS Neuroanatomy
  • Columnar/longitudinal organization of spinal and cranial nerve nuclei
  • Tubular organization of central nervous system
slide7
SC

Dorsal surface

Dorsalroot

Ventralroot

Gray matter White matter

Spinal nerve

Ventral surface

NTA 1-4

brief overview of mature cns neuroanatomy8
Brief Overview of Mature CNS Neuroanatomy
  • 2) Columnar/longitudinal organization of spinal and cranial nerve nuclei
  • 1) Tubular organization of central nervous system
  • 3) Complex C-shaped organization of cerebral cortex and nuclei and structures located beneath cortex
    • Lateral ventricle
    • Basal ganglia
    • Hippocampal formation & Fornix
neural induction
Neural Induction

•Portion of the dorsal ectoderm becomes committed to become the nervous system:

Neural plate

slide10

Neural tube wall: neurons & glia of CNS

Neural tube cavity: ventricular system

Neural crest: PNS neurons, etc

White matter

Gray matter

Ectoderm

Neuralplate

Neuralgroove

Neuraltube

NTA 3-1

nt development

Brain vesicles:

NT development

Rostral

Forebrain

Midbrain

Neural Tube Development

Hindbrain

Rostral neural tube forms the brain

Caudal neural tube forms the spinal cord

Spinal cord

Caudal

Cephalicflexure

NTA 3-2

3 5 ves stages

3-vesicle stage

5-vesicle stage

3 & 5 ves stages

Cerebralhemisphere

Lateralventricle

Forebrain

Midbrain

Diencephalon

Midbrain

3rdventricle

Hindbrain

Pons &Cerebellum

Cerebral

aqueduct

Medulla

4thventricle

Spinal cord

Centralcanal

Cephalicflexure

…by the 5 vesicle stage, all 7 major brain divisions are present

NTA 3-2

midsagbrain

Cephalicflexure

The cephalic flexure persists into maturity

MidsagBrain
slide14
axes

NTA 1-13

spinal cord brain stem have a similar developmental plan
Spinal cord & brain stem have a similar developmental plan
  • Segmentation
  • Nuclear organization: columnar
sc dev

Dorsal horn

SC dev

Alar plate

Sulcuslimitans

Central

canal

Basal plate

Ventral horn

Dorsal horn

Central

canal

Ventral horn

NTA 3-7

slide17

Dorsal horn

Dorsalroot

Ventralroot

Ventral horn

slide18

Similarities between SC and brain stem development

•Sulcus limitans separates sensory and motor nuclei

•Nuclei have columnar shape

Key differences

  • 1) central canal enlargement motor medial and sensory lateral
  • 2) migration away from ventricle
  • 3) >> sensory and motor
bs dev
BS dev

Alar plate andmigrating neuroblasts

Basal plate

NTA 3-8

medulla development

Striated/branchio.

Striated/somite

Autonomic.

Vestibular/auditory.

Somatic sensory.

Taste/viscerosensory

Alar plate

Basal plate

Medulla development

4th Vent

Alar plate

Sulcus limitans

Basal plate

Inferior olivarynucleus

NTA 3-9

pons development
Pons development

4th Vent

Striated/branchio.

Alar plate

Striated/somite

Vestibular/auditory.

Somatic sensory.

Taste/viscerosensory

Autonomic.

Basal plate

Pontine nuclei

Sulcus limitans

Alar plate

Basal plate

NTA 3-10

midbrain development
Midbrain development

Cerebral aq.

Alar plate

Somatic sensory.

Autonomic.

Striated/somite

Red nucleus

Basal plate

Sub. nigra

Sulcus limitans

More like spinal

Cord b/c fewer nuclear classesand cerebral aqueduct

Basal plate

NTA 3-11

slide23

Similarities between forebrain and hindbrain/spinal development

•Tubular

Key differences

  • 1) CH more complex than BS/SC
  • 2) Cortical gyri more complex anatomy than nuclei
  • 3) Subcortical nuclei are C-shaped
    • Confusing: structure in two places on image
diencephalon
Diencephalon
  • Thalamus
    • Gateway to cortex
  • Hypothalamus
    • Control of endocrine and bodily functions
    • Circadian rhythms
    • Etc.
ch dev
CH dev

NTA 3-14

cerebral cortex development

Parietal

Occipital

Frontal

Temporal

Cerebral Cortex Development
forebrain development c shaped structures
Forebrain Development & C-shaped Structures
  • Cerebral cortex (NTA 3-15)
  • Lateral ventricles (NTA 3-16)
  • Striatum (NTA 3-16)
  • Hippocampal formation and fornix (NTA 3-17)
summary
Summary
  • 7 Major components of the central nervous system & Ventricles
  • All present from ~ 1st prenatal month
  • Longitudinal organization of SC and BS nuclei
    • Columns
    • Anatomical and functional divisions
  • C-shape organization of cerebral hemisphere structures and diencephalic
    • Cerebral cortex
    • Lateral ventricle
    • Striatum
    • Hippocampal formation and fornix