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Neuroanatomy. Parts of the neuron Membrane Soma or cell body Cytoplasm Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Mitochondria Golgi apparatus Intracellular organelles. Neuroanatomy. Parts of the neuron Soma or cell body Dendrites (afferent to soma) Spines (postsynaptic)

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neuroanatomy
Neuroanatomy
  • Parts of the neuron
    • Membrane
    • Soma or cell body
      • Cytoplasm
      • Nucleus
      • Endoplasmic reticulum
      • Ribosomes
      • Mitochondria
      • Golgi apparatus
      • Intracellular organelles
neuroanatomy1
Neuroanatomy
  • Parts of the neuron
    • Soma or cell body
    • Dendrites (afferent to soma)
      • Spines (postsynaptic)
    • Axon (efferent to soma)
      • Axonal hillock
      • Terminal (presynaptic)
  • Synapse
neuronal signaling
Neuronal Signaling
  • Types of neuronal potentials
    • Resting membrane potential
    • Graded potentials
      • depolarizing
      • hyperpolarizing
    • Action potentials
neuronal signaling1
Neuronal Signaling
  • Resting membrane potential
    • Voltage difference across neuronal membrane
      • Typically -70 mV inside relative to outside neuron
neuronal signaling2
Neuronal Signaling
  • Resting membrane potential
    • Voltage difference across neuronal membrane
    • Membrane is semipermeable
    • Ion channels
      • Pores in membrane formed by proteins that allow ions to pass
        • K+
        • Na+
        • Cl-
      • Passive (nongated)
      • Active (gated) Na+ / K+ ATPase pump
        • 3 Na+ out for every 2 K+ in
neuronal signaling3
Neuronal Signaling
  • Resting membrane potential
    • Voltage difference across neuronal membrane
    • Membrane is semipermeable
    • Ion channels
    • Concentration gradients
      • More Na+ outside
      • More K+ inside
    • Electrical gradients
      • Negative charge inside, positive outside
    • Electrochemical or ionic equilibrium
      • Nernst equation
neuronal signaling4
Neuronal Signaling
  • Electrical conduction
    • Passive conduction
      • Electrotonic or decremental
    • Active conduction
      • Action potentials
      • Synaptic potentials
      • Receptor potential
neuronal signaling5
Neuronal Signaling
  • Electrical conduction
    • Passive conduction
      • Volume conduction
      • Amplitude of original current (V)
      • Resistance (R) and capacitance of membrane
      • Conductivity of intra- and extracellular fluids
      • Ohm's law V = IR or I = V / R
neuronal signaling6
Neuronal Signaling
  • Electrical conduction
    • Passive conduction
    • Active conduction
      • Action potential
        • Threshold
          • Depolarization
          • Hyperpolarization
neuronal signaling7
Neuronal Signaling
  • Electrical conduction
    • Passive conduction
    • Active conduction
      • Action potential
        • Threshold
        • All-or-none
neuronal signaling8
Neuronal Signaling
  • Electrical conduction
    • Passive conduction
    • Active conduction
      • Action potential
        • Threshold
        • All-or-none
        • Hodgkin-Huxley cycle
          • Influx of Na+ followed by efflux of K+
          • Absolute refractory period
          • Relative refractory period
neuronal signaling9
Neuronal Signaling
  • Electrical conduction
    • Passive conduction
    • Active conduction
      • Action potential
        • Threshold
        • All-or-none
        • Hodgkin-Huxley cycle
        • Propagation
          • Saltatory conduction
          • Myelin
          • Node of Ranvier
neuronal signaling10
Neuronal Signaling
  • Electrical conduction
  • Synaptic Transmission
    • Transmembrane proteins
      • Ion channels
        • Polypeptides
          • Amino acids
        • 3-D structure
neuronal signaling11
Neuronal Signaling
  • Electrical conduction
  • Synaptic Transmission
    • Transmembrane proteins
      • Ion channels
        • Nongated
neuronal signaling12
Neuronal Signaling
  • Electrical conduction
  • Synaptic Transmission
    • Transmembrane proteins
      • Ion channels
        • Nongated
        • Gated
          • Voltage-gated
neuronal signaling13
Neuronal Signaling
  • Electrical conduction
  • Synaptic Transmission
    • Transmembrane proteins
      • Ion channels
        • Nongated
        • Gated
          • Voltage-gated
          • Chemically-gated

- Receptors

* Directly coupled

* Indirectly coupled: second messenger

neuronal signaling14
Neuronal Signaling
  • Electrical conduction
  • Synaptic transmission
    • Transmembrane proteins
    • Chemical
      • Ca++ influx (voltage gated)
      • Vesicles
      • Transmitter release
      • Synaptic cleft
neuronal signaling15
Neuronal Signaling
  • Electrical conduction
  • Synaptic transmission
    • Transmembrane proteins
    • Chemical
    • Electrical
      • Gap junctions
      • Bidirectional
      • Rectifying
neuronal signaling16
Neuronal Signaling
  • Electrical conduction
    • Resting membrane potential
    • Graded potentials
      • Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs)
        • depolarization
      • Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs)
        • hyperpolarization
    • Action potentials
  • Synaptic transmission
neuronal signaling17
Neuronal Signaling
  • Electrical conduction
    • Resting membrane potential
    • Graded potentials
    • Action potentials
  • Synaptic transmission
    • Transmembrane proteins
    • Chemical
    • Electrical
neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters
  • Synthesized and stored within presynaptic terminal
  • Released by presynaptic neuron following action potential
  • Postsynaptic neuron has receptor
  • When applied to postsynaptic neuron has same effect
neurotransmitters1
Neurotransmitters
  • Synthesis
    • Soma (large molecule)
      • Fast transport of neurotransmitter
    • Terminal (small molecule)
      • Slow transport of enzymes
    • Neuron may produce more than one
  • Inactivated after release
    • Reuptake
    • Enzymatic breakdown
    • Diffusion
  • Agonist vs antagonist
classes of neurotransmitters e generally excitatory i generally inhibitory
Classes of NeurotransmittersE = generally excitatory / I = generally inhibitory
  • Amino acids
    • glutamate (E)
    • aspartate (E)
    • glycine (I)
    • gama-amniobutyric acid (GABA) (I)
classes of neurotransmitters e generally excitatory i generally inhibitory1
Classes of NeurotransmittersE = generally excitatory / I = generally inhibitory
  • Biogenic amines
    • acetylcholine (E in CNS, I in PNS)
    • dopamine (I)
    • norepinephrine (E & I in CNS, SNS)
    • epinephrine (E)
    • serotonin (I)
classes of neurotransmitters e generally excitatory i generally inhibitory2
Classes of NeurotransmittersE = generally excitatory / I = generally inhibitory
  • Neuropeptides
    • Tachykinins
      • substance P (E)
    • Neurohyphophyseal hormones
    • Hypothalamic releasing hormones
    • Opiods
      • endorphins (E)
    • Other
  • Some may be conditional