Foreign and Military Policy Ms. Bittman’s AP American Government
What is foreign policy? • The goals of the US government in regards to other nations. • How do we achieve it? • Diplomacy (State Dept), economic aid, technical assistance. • Statements of goals or ideas • End world poverty • Sometimes comprehensive efforts • Foreign policy process begins with prez. Influenced by cong and public debate.
What is Foreign Policy? • National Security Policy: to protect the independence and integrity of the US • Defense against actual/potential threats. • Based on determinants from the Departments of Defense, State, National Security Council and others. • NSC advises the president, and State. • Diplomacy: all of the external relationships • Communications to summit mtgs. • Settling of disputes/conflicts
Morality vs. Reality in FP • We think that our actions should be guided by our moral and political principals. • Truman “The US should take the lead in running the world in the way that it out to be run.” • FP is rooted in moral idealism (see the world as benign and willing to cooperate for the good of all) • Nations should see the wrong in violating human rights • Usually unsuccessful because it assumes W morals and politics.
Morality vs. Reality in FP • Opposition to moral idealism is political realism • World is dangerous, each nation tries to survive and cater to it’s interests. • FP should only focus on what's best for USA • US prepared to defend itself • US should be willing to protect its interests • IE: we can sell weapons to dictators that are willing to support US policies, businesses, repel terrorism. • Both moral and political realism are used. • Grant aid to trading partner but attaching conditions
Who Make FP? • Struggle b/t President and Congress… • Constitutional powers of Prez • “Preserve, protect, and defend” • Commander in chief • All prez interpret this broadly. • Since Washington, US has been in 125 undeclared wars • Negotiates treaties (2/3 congress) • Executive agreements (95% of all understandings since WWII) • Appoint ambassadors • Recognize foreign governments
Who Make FP? • Informal powers of Prez • Access to information-> CIA, State Dept, Defense Dept • Influence amount of funds for some programs • Can influence public opinion • Patriotism, fear. Usually get Americans behind him. • Can commit the nation morally to a course of actions • Difficult for congress or anyone to back down on a commitment.
Who Make FP? • Other sources of FP • Department of State- agency most concerned with FP • Supervises US relations with nations, UN and multi-national groups • Staffs embassies and consulates throughout world • Declined in preeminence since WWII • Seen as slow, plodding, bureaucratic • Changing since 9-11 • AKA “The Department of Bad News”
Who Make FP? • National Security Council- advise the president on the integration of domestic, foreign, military polices relating to national security • Tries to keep policy continuity from one administration to the next. • Prez, VP, Sec of State and Defense, Chairperson of Joint Chiefs of Staff. • Department of Defense- all the activities of military under single civilian control • Joint Chiefs of Staff created to form a unified military strategy
Who Makes FP? • The Intelligence Community- 40 or more agencies involved • Jan 24, 1978, Carter’s EO 12036 defined the major members of the intelligence community • CIA, NSA, DIA (Defense Intelligence Agency), Dept of Defense, Bureau of Intelligence and Research @ State, FBI, Army, Air Force Intelligence, Dept of Treasury, DEA.
Limiting the Prez’s Power • Congress keeps trying to limit it. • 1973 War Powers Resolution over Nixon’s veto • Limited use of troops w/o congressional approval. • Most presidents don’t actually “consult” • Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush, Clinton, Bush II, Obama. • Congress has limited prez’s requests • Angolan Rebels, government of El Salvador, B-1 bomber • Congress has taken initiative… • Economic sanctions against South Africa to end apartheid. Reagan vetoed, but it was overridden.
Domestic Sources of FP • Elite and mass opinion • Business, education, communications, labor, religion. • Council on Foreign Relations work to increase international cooperation. • Elites encouraging debate • Generally effective with the attentive public, 10-20% that pay attention.
Domestic Sources of FP • The Military-Industrial Complex- the relationship between the defense establishment and arms manufacturers • Defense contracts. • Retired military officers become executives • After Cold War, began outsourcing.
Major FP Themes • The Formative Years: Avoiding Entanglements • FP negative, FF mistrusted Europe. • 1700-1800s, avoided Europe • Monroe Doctrine continued into the 19th century • Expansionist in our hemisphere. • 1803- LA Purchase • 1839- Annex HI • 1845- Annex TX • 1847- Purchased AK • Spanish-American War and WWI ended the isolationism
Major FP Themes • The Era of Internationalism • Dec 7, 1941… Pearl Harbor permanently ended isolationism. • After WWII • US was the only strong nation, economically. • Only one with nukes • Cold War- deteriorated relations with SU • Split German, created the Soviet Bloc, US rearmed W. Europe • US under the Truman Doctrine created a Containment Policy
Major FP Themes • Superpower Relations. US vs. Soviets • No actual fighting, only proxy wars • Korea (1950-3) and Vietnam (1954-74) • Cuban Missile Crisis • Détente at the end of the 1960s • Threat of nuclear war became real • Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I): • Permanently limited development and deployment of ABMs
Major FP Themes • Reagan-Bush Years • Reagan took a hard line, Star Wars in 1983. • 1985, US and Soviet reestablished cultural and scientific exchanges. • 1987, Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force Treaty • Dismantled 4,000 . • Bush continued negotiations • 1992 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START): reduces the # of long range nuclear weapons.
Challenges in World Politics • Dissolution of the Soviet Union • Fall of Berlin Wall in 1989 • Dec. 26, 1991, SU officially dissolved • Nuclear Proliferation • No longer scared of nukes • US and Russia continue to negotiate dismantling • 32,000 warheads in stock
Challenges in World Politics • The New Power: China • Trying to engage in diplomatic and economic relationships • Clinton increased outreach b/c China allowed free enterprise • Granted most-favored-nation status
Challenges in World Politics • Global Economy • Intertwined with everyone. • Stock crash in 1987. • 1997-1998 Asia had issues… affected America. • US has a net trade deficit • We are a debtor nation • 2000 EU became a major trading partner. • They are now going broke
Challenges in World Politics • Terrorism- What is terrorism? • Weapon of choice in domestic/civil conflicts • If planned against foreign targets… make an international statement.
Buses parked near a terminal in central Baghdad were destroyed by two car bombs at 7:50 a.m. August 17.
Al-Qaeda Attacks 1993 World Trade Center bombing: Underground damage after the bombing
April 11, 2007 Algiers bombings. Two bombs exploded within a short time of each other, one at the prime ministers office and the other at a police station The USS Cole bombing was a suicide attack against the U.S. NavydestroyerUSS Cole (DDG 67) on October 12, 2000 while it was harbored and refueling in the Yemeni port of Aden. Seventeen American sailors were killed, and 39 were injured. This event was the deadliest attack against a U.S. Naval vessel since 1987.
1920, 16 September: Wall Street Bombing killed 38 people and wounded 300 others 1920, 16 September: Wall Street Bombing killed 38 people and wounded 300 others 1920, 16 September: Wall Street Bombing killed 38 people and wounded 300 others Other Terrorist Attacks
Irish Republican Army Bombings Left Clockwise: The Grand Hotel, the South Key Hotel, and the Aftermath of Bloody Friday (22 Bombings in one day).
The Munich massacre is an informal name for events that occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage and eventually murdered by Black September, a militant group allegedly associated with Yasser Arafat’s Fatah organization Image of terrorist Khalid Jawad looking over the balcony of the Israeli team quarters at Building 31 of the Munich Olympic village. This is the most widely recognizable and iconic photo of the event Israeli hostages KehatShorr (left) and Andre Spitzer (right) talk to German officials during the hostage crisis
Barajas Airport parking after the bomb Euskadi Ta Askatasuna or ETA (English: Basque Homeland and Freedom; pronounced), is an armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization. The group was founded in 1959 and they evolved from a group promoting traditional Basque culture to a paramilitary group with the goal of gaining independence for the Greater Basque Country from a Marxist-Leninist perspective. Repairs to the Balmaseda law courts after a bombing in 2006
Theodore "Ted" John Kaczynski (born May 22, 1942), also known as the Unabomber (University and Airline Bomber), is an American mathematician and social critic, who carried out a campaign of deadly mail bombings. From 1978 to 1995, Kaczynski sent 16 bombs to targets including universities and airlines, killing three people and injuring 23. In his Industrial Society and Its Future (also called the "Unabomber Manifesto"), he argued that his bombings were extreme but necessary to attract attention to the erosion of human freedom necessitated by modern technologies requiring large-scale organization
The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States. 52 Americans were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981, after a group of Islamist students and militants took over the American Embassy in support of the Iranian Revolution A group photograph of the former hostages in the hospital. The 52 hostages are spending a few days in the hospital after their release from Iran prior to their departure for the United States.
The Sarin attack on the Tokyo subway, usually referred to in the Japanese media as the Subway Sarin Incident, was an act of domestic terrorism perpetrated by members of AumShinrikyo on March 20, 1995. In five coordinated attacks, the perpetrators released sarin on several lines of the Tokyo Metro, killing thirteen people, severely injuring fifty and causing temporary vision problems for nearly a thousand others. The attack was directed against trains passing through Kasumigaseki and Nagatachō, home to the Japanese government. It was and remains the most serious attack to occur in Japan since the end of World War II
The Oklahoma City bombing was a bomb attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995 by Timothy McVeigh, an American militia movement sympathizer who detonated an explosive-filled truck parked in front of the building. McVeigh about to exit the Perry, Oklahoma, courthouse on April 21, 1995
The 7 July 2005 London bombings, also known as 7/7, were a series of coordinated suicide attacks on London's public transport system during the morning rush hour. The bombings were carried out by four Muslim men, three of British Pakistani and one of British Jamaican descent, who were motivated by Britain's involvement in the Iraq War.
Regional Conflicts • Haiti • 1992, military regime ousted Jean-Bertrand Aristide. • Clinton installed sanctions and sent troops in 1994. • Haiti still poor and corrupt. • Earthquake killed 100,000s. • Cuba • 1994, swarm of Cuban refugees. • Clinton took away the open-door policy • Helms-Burton Act- illegal to invest in gov controlled business. • Elian Gonzalez- US gov vs. Cubans in Miami.
Regional Conflicts • The Middle East • US supports Israel, try to end the Palestinian conflict • Very hard to do!!! • All Arab states must recognize Israel • Require Israelis to work with the PLO (terrorists) • Constantly opening talks, and then stopping talks. • Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait • Bush had to protect ally and oil. • Saudi Arabia asked for troops. Did not oust Saddam Hussein
Clockwise from top left: Protesters gathering in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt; Demonstrators marching through HabibBourguib Avenue in Tunis, Tunisia; Political dissidents in Sana'a, Yemen; Protesters gathering in Pearl Roundabout in Manama, Bahrain; Hundreds of Thousands in Douma, Damascus, Syria; Demonstrators in Bayda, Libya.
Regional Conflicts • Eastern Europe • After the soviets, some became democracies, some dictatorships. • Yugoslavian Conflict • 35,000 rapes