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World War II notes. After “the war to end all wars,” most countries were not interested in fighting ever again. The Treaty of Versailles put a number of unpalatable conditions on Germany.

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World War II notes

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    1. World War II notes

    2. After “the war to end all wars,” most countries were not interested in fighting ever again. • The Treaty of Versailles put a number of unpalatable conditions on Germany. • The Great Depression hit EVERYONE hard, but especially Europe, because it’s economy had been so badly damaged by the war. • Germany was MUCH harder hit because the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles made it very difficult (impossible?) for their economy to recover at all. • The Great Depression had made fertile ground for alternative political ideas and xenophobic attitudes. Recall...

    3. Expansionism Fascism Isolationism Appeasement Militarism Nationalism Racism Treaty of Versailles Competition for Resources League of Nations Great Depression European Civil War Unfinished? Causes of World War II

    4. Expansionism (geographic or economic) • Italy and the New Roman Empire • Tries to expand into Ethiopia (1935), Albania (1939) and Greece. • Germany • Will aim to recapture lands lost in the Treaty of Versailles • Austria, Poland, France • Soviet Union • Lost land after WWI too... Remember, they signed a treaty. • Wants Poland, Japan, Finland, Estonia and Latvia Causes of World War II

    5. Expansionism (cont’d) • Hungary • Lost lands in WWI • Allied itself with Germany • Romania and Greater Romania visions • Allied with Germany • Lost lands • Bulgaria • Lost territories to Greece, Romania and Yugoslavia Causes of World War II

    6. Expansionism (cont’d) • Finland • Lost territory to the Soviet Union during the war • Continued to fight with Soviets when Germans attacked • Japan • Expansionist desires • Need colonies and resources for industrial growth and competition • Thailand • Lost territory to France and Britain at the end of the 19th century. Causes of World War II

    7. Fascism • Nationalism and militarism combined. • My country is best and I’ll prove it! “Others” are the problem and we’ll solve it! • racism and discrimination are common. • The state should control the economy (and everyone in it) for the benefit of the state. • Popular after the chaos of the Great Depression—somebody please take control of this mess!!! • Strong central government (usually with a dictator) • Italy, Germany, Japan, and Spain • Fascist parties in almost every country (Canada too!) Causes of World War II

    8. Benito Mussolini Adolf Hitler Emperor Hirohito Francisco Franco

    9. Isolationism • The desire to stay out of the affairs of other countries. • Result of “the war to end all wars”—We’re never doing THAT again!!! • USA will refuse to be drawn into conflict • France, Britain (and Canada!) will engage in Appeasement Causes of World War II

    10. Appeasement • The desire to avoid war will cause countries to “give in” to demands—particularly Germany’s demands. • Will do nothing as Germany re-arms. • Will not stop the Anschluss—Germany and Austria uniting • Will make the Munich Agreement—give a portion of Czechoslovakia (the Sudetenland) to Germany Causes of World War II

    11. Militarism • Arms race again! Who can build more and better and faster? • Nationalism • Peoples’ identifying themselves as greater, better, grander, etc. • Empires a sign of greatness • Smaller nations still trapped in larger ones created at the end of World War I—for example: Yugoslavia Causes of World War II

    12. Racism • Pan-Germanism • The desire to unite all Germans—Austria, Germany, Netherlands, etc. (loose definition of “german”) • Room for “others”??? • Pan-Slavism • The desire to unite all Slavic peoples (Russia, Czechoslovakia, the Baltic States, etc.) • Anti-Semitism • Common and widespread—Canada too! • Particular sore point for those Germans who believe the “Scapegoat” theory that Jews were responsible for the loss of WWI Causes of World War II

    13. Treaty of Versailles • “War Guilt Clause” had humiliated Germany and there was a widespread desire to regain reputation • Militarism—rebuild military • Expansionism—win back lost territory • Reparations had a HUGE impact on Germany’s economy • Money, coal, steel, and other resources were being shipped OUT of Germany • The Great Depression made this particularly distasteful • A lack of willingness on the part of the Allies to enforce the treaty gave Hitler the green light. (Appeasement) • Demilitarized zone, rearmament, etc. Causes of World War II

    14. Competition for Resources • Japan—island with few/no resources • Invades Manchuria in 1931 • Eyeing the oil-rich Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) • Importing 80% of their oil from the USA who had placed an embargo (1941) Causes of World War II

    15. Failure of the League of Nations • France and Belgium invade the Ruhr (1923) • Even the big players can’t be made to follow the rules! • Japan’s invasion of Manchuria (1931) • Condemned but not stopped • Italy’s invasion of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) (1935) • Action condemned but not stopped • The League of Nations had no army to enforce it’s will • Also, despite being Woodrow Wilson’s idea, the USA had NOT joined the League. Causes of World War II

    16. The Great Depression • Poverty, unemployment, civil unrest • Rise in new political parties to solve the problems • Socialists—blame the imbalance of wealth and redistribute the wealth • Communists—blame the rich and overthrow the capitalist system • Fascists—blame the “other”(jews, immigrants, gypsies, the mentally ill, criminals, etc.—whoever can be blamed that is not “one of us”) and clean up our country Causes of world war II

    17. Recognize this?

    18. National Unity Party • Est. 1934 • Advocated Anti-Communism • Argued that Jews should be deported to Hudson Bay • Had a paramilitary arm called the Blueshirts • Leader: AdrienArcand • Alleged that R.B. Bennett used Arcand’s fascist newspapers to help him win the elections of 1930 and 1935 (Bennett lost in 1935) Flag of the Canadian “National Unity Party”

    19. European Civil War Unfinished? • Lots of unresolved issues from the last 150 years! • Territorial confusion • Muddied alliances • Hurt feelings and desire to settle the score. • NONE wants the legacy of losing. Causes of World War II

    20. Early 1930s • Italy invades Ethiopia • Japan invades Manchuria • Germany begins breaking terms of Treaty of Versailles • Rearmament • Occupation of the Rhineland (the demilitarized zone of Germany that bordered France) Steps to War

    21. Anschluss (March 1938) • Germany annexes Austria • Munich Agreement (September 1938) • Britain and France agree to let Nazi Germany take over the Sudetenland ( a predominantly German area of Czechoslovakia) as part of their appeasement policy • Invasion of Chzechoslovakia (Aug 1939) StEps to War

    22. New Alliances/ Agreements • Italy—Rome-Berlin Axis—Hitler and Mussolini are allied • Later (1940), Japan will join this axis. Steps to war

    23. Non-Aggression Pact (Aug 1939—just prior to war) • Germany and Soviet Union agree not to attack one another and to split Poland between them. Steps to War

    24. Poland Invaded • Germany wants back “The Polish Corridor” but Poland refuses. • Poland is invaded Sept. 1 1939 • Britain and France demand that Germany leave Poland—it does not. Steps to war

    25. War is declared by Britain and France Sept. 3 1939—Clearly, appeasement failed! • Canada declares war September 10 after an unrecorded vote in Parliament. • First time Canada declares war as an independent country. Steps to war

    26. Poland fell on Oct. 19, 1939 • The Nazi army then spent until Spring planning their attack. • Moved their troops to the staging areas for later attacks. • Europe Waited. Phony war

    27. “Lightning War” • Strategy based on speed, coordination and movement—strike hard, strike quickly, and move on • Relied on reputation for quick surrender • Stuka dive bombers would destroy airfields, rail lines and communications • IMMEDIATELY after, in the chaos created, tanks and infantry move in with air support —no time to recover and regroup • No stopping to celebrate... Move on to the next target. • Radio is key • Allows for immediate communications between commanders, air support and artillery support. Blitzkrieg

    28. “Lightning War” • Spring 1940— • Denmark – 1 day • Norway – 2 days • Netherlands – 5 days • Luxembourg – 1 day • Belgium – 18 days • France – 6 weeks Blitzkrieg

    29. May 1940 • Thousands of British and French forces pushed back by “Blitzkrieg” lose their footing in France and are backed up against the English Channel • “Miracle at Dunkirk” –troops are rescued and taken safely to Britain in EVERY kind of boat imaginable • Over 350 000 soldiers saved • Equipment abandoned • Foothold in Europe LOST Miracle at Dunkirk

    30. Late summer and fall of 1940 • German Luftwaffe to try and destroy the Royal Air Force (RAF) • Goal: Control the skies so that the Navy can move troops to invade Britain • Targets: RAF bases and equipment • The RAF (Royal Air Force) retaliates • Flew to Germany and drops bombs on Berlin Battle of Britain

    31. Strategy and Goal Change: Bomb London, destroy morale • Fatal mistake—RAF now has just one patch of sky to focus their attention on • Londoners rallied—spirit could not be broken • Sept. 15, 1940 • Last attack by the Luftwaffe • RAF ready and two days later the attack on Britain was called off Battle of Britain

    32. Heavy Losses to the Luftwaffe • Hitler abandons plans to invade Britain • Strategy and Goal Change (Again) • Turn attack to Russia • PM Churchill: “Never was so much owed by so many to so few.” • Argues that Britain (and the rest of the free world?) is saved because of the Air Force. Battle of Britain

    33. The Battle of Britain

    34. Hong Kong - 1941

    35. Dieppe – 1942 – Operation Jubilee

    36. What? • Frontal assault on German-held French port • Mini-invasion • Attempt to get enigma machine • When? • August 19, 1942 • Where? • Dieppe, France – Seaside port in Normandy Raid on Dieppe

    37. Who? • 2nd Canadian Division (4963 men) • British Commandos (1005 men) • US Rangers (50 men) • French (15 men) • 237 ships • RAF & RCAF (bombers) Raid on Dieppe

    38. Casualties • 907 Canadians • 52 Brits • 3 US Rangers • 75 Royal Navy • 119 RAF and RCAF aircraft (62 dead) Raid on Dieppe

    39. Objectives • Seize and hold a major Channel port (without ruining infrastructure) • Test new amphibious equipment • Gather intelligence (from POWs) • Gauge German responses & times • Utilize restless Canadians (2 years & no battle) Raid on Dieppe

    40. Why? • Boost Allied morale (no victories – North African Defeats) • British press pushing for action • Soviet Union pressing for 2nd front • Americans pushing Churchill for action • One of the least fortified places with the new 3 dial enigma machine Raid on Dieppe

    41. The Plan • Phase One – troops to attack from the flanks at daybreak to neutralize artillery postions at Berneval & Puis • Phase Two – 1. 30 minutes later – frontal assault on two • 2. further targets inland were to be captured • 3. withdrawal to beach and ships • Problems • 1. ships encounter German convoy (radio coastal defenses) • 2. Ships become scattered (some commandos never reach beach) Raid on Dieppe

    42. Problems • 3. Eastern flank behind schedule... Daylight = loss of surprise • 4. reinforcements were pinned on the beach • 5. Western flank has success but is stopped short of town • 6. intense machine gun fire forces evacuation craft to leave men behind. • 7. failure of eastern flank dooms Main assault • 8. cliff caves allow big guns to survive aerial bombardment • 9. No aerial bombardment the night before • 10. heavily-sloped cobblestone beach Raid on Dieppe