World War II 1939-1945
Causes of War Long Term Causes Immediate Causes Expansion policies Appeasement German invade Poland Pearl Harbor • Treaty of Versailles • Nationalism • Militarism & Totalitarian States • Great Depression
Invasion of Poland September 1939
Invasion of Poland • Nonaggression pact between Hitler and Stalin • Agreed to divide Poland in half. • Pact was supposed to last 10 years. • Surprise attack on September 1, 1939 • Tanks, troop trucks, aircraft, & artillery full assault on Warsaw. • September 3 Britain and France declared war but did not mobilize troops to help Poland
Choosing Sides Allied Powers Axis Powers Germany Japan Italy Romania Hungary Bulgaria Thailand Finland Iraq • Soviet Union • United States • British Empire • China • Soviet China • France • Poland • Canada • Australia • New Zealand • South Africa • Yugoslavia • Greece • Norway • Netherlands • Belgium • Czechoslovakia • Brazil
Invasion of France May 1940
Invasion of France • April 1940 Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway and build bases to attack Britain and France • May 1940 Hitler invaded Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France. • Rescue and Dunkirk • British rescued over 300,000 French Solders trapped on beach in France
Battle of Britain 1940-1941
Battle of Britain • British RAF (Royal Air Force) Vs. German Luftwaffe • Germans bombed British airfields and factories • Then Sept 7, 1940 started bombing cities • British developed Radar & stole a German Enigma machine. • Germans switched to night bombing then gave up in May 1941
Battle for Moscow Operation Barbarossa June 1941
Operation Barbarossa • After securing the Balkans Hitler surprise attacked Russia. • This plan to take over Russia included attacks on Leningrad and Moscow. • Germans surrounded Leningrad and starved the people. • Germans continued to Moscow but were stopped and Hitler forced them to stay in the cold and fight.
Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941
Pearl Harbor • U.S. knew of a coded message that Japan might attack, but they did not know when or where. • Japan sunk/damaged 19 ships. • 2,300 Americans killed 1,100 wounded.
Battle of Stalingrad Winter 1942
Battle of Stalingrad • German Luftwaffe bombed and invaded the city of Stalingrad. • Controlled 90% of the city • Russia waited until winter and surrounded Stalingrad. • Cut off Germany’s supplies • 1 year later 90,000 German solders surrendered. Stalin used over 1 million troops to defend it.
Doolittle’s Raid April 1942
Doolittle's Raid • 16 B-25 Bombers launched a raid on Tokyo • Did little damage, but was a psychological victory • Japan felt they were no longer invincible • United States felt they avenged Pearl Harbor • “Victory is achieved from those who believe the longest”
Battle of Midway June 1942
Battle of Midway • Japan wanted to occupy the United States outpost on Midway island. • Tried to lure U.S. to Aleutian islands by splitting his task force. • Japan thought the Yorktown was sunk at Coral Sea. • All of these plans were unsuccessful because American’s decrypted Japanese code.
Battle of Midway • U.S. scout planes spotted the Japanese attack force. • Let the Japanese attack Midway while we attacked their aircraft carriers. • Destroyed 332 planes and 4 aircraft carriers. • After defeats in Philippians , Guam, & Wake Island this was the turning point the the Pacific front
D-Day: Operation Overlord June 6, 1944
Operation Overlord • Largest land & sea attack in history • British, American, French, & Canadian troops fought their way onto a 60 mile stretch of Beach in Normandy, France • After a month over 1 million troops landed and they secured Normandy and later liberated Paris
Battle of the Bulge Winter 1944 - 1945
Battle of the Bulge • Germany’s last push forward. • “This battle is to decide if we shall live or die” Hitler • Germany split the Allies lines but had to reinforcements and eventually had to retreat.
Battle of Iwo Jima February 1945
The Battle of Okinawa April 1945
Battle for Berlin May 1945
Hiroshima and Nagasaki August 6, 1945 & August 9, 1945
Effects of WW2 • Defeat of fascist and military dictators • Devastation and loss of life • Development of nuclear weapons • Rise of the United States and Soviet Union as World Powers