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1935: Hitler rebuild military (illegal from Treaty of Versailles) ... 1938: Hitler clearly dangerous (strong military, campaigns against Jews) ...

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world war ii

World War II

Unit #7

U.S. History CP

2008-2009

i wwii introduction
I. WWII Introduction:
  • Begins with the surprise attack by Japanese on Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941
  • War ends with 2 bombings by the United States on Japan: Hiroshima August 6,1945 & Nagasaki August 9, 1945.
ii two visions for u s foreign policy
II. Two Visions for U.S. Foreign Policy:
  • Imperialism:
    • 1890s: beginning of U.S.’s place in the world
  • Mutual Security:
    • Wilson’s vision: US. Must commit itself to mutual security with the rest of the world (Wilson lost this vision in 1919).
iii another war
III. Another War
  • Wilson’s nightmare coming true: another WAR.
  • GERMANY:
    • After WWI: debt, lost land, psychological burden of war
    • Depression had hit hard: frustration boiled up in the 1930s
    • Hitler exploits this frustration
iii another war continued
III. Another War (continued)
  • Japan:
    • Become industrial power in the 1930s (only one in Asia in late 19th century)
    • 1920s-1930s: frustration growing in Japan
      • Needed economic resources from elsewhere
      • Emperor Hirohito committed to expanding Japanese power.
iii another war continued8
III. Another War (continued)
  • Germany & Japan:
    • Military aggression
    • Imperial desire
    • Racism
    • FDR decided NOT to intervened.
    • League of Nations ineffective.
iii another war continued9
III. Another War (continued)
  • Civil War in China (1926- 1949):
    • Mao Zedong (Communists) vs. Chiang Kai-shek (Nationalists)
iv events leading to the war
IV. Events Leading to the WAR:
  • 1931: Japan invades Manchuria (northern China)
    • Hoover administration did nothing although refused to acknowledge the seized territory; FDR endorses this.
    • League of Nations critical of aggression but ineffective
    • MESSAGE: other powers in the world won’t stop them.
iv events leading to the war11
IV. Events Leading to the WAR:
  • 1935: Hitler rebuild military (illegal from Treaty of Versailles)
    • October Italy invades Ethiopia (one of the few nations in Africa)
iv events leading to the war12
IV. Events Leading to the WAR:
  • 1936: Germany reclaimed control of Rhineland (taken away in the Treat of Versailles)
    • Spanish Civil War (proxy war): Germany & Italy aid Franco; Soviets support Republicans
iv events leading to the war13
IV. Events Leading to the WAR:
  • 1937: Italy (Mussolini) joins existing Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany & Japan
    • Japanese launch general war in China bombing Shanghai
    • Massacre at Nanjing.
iv events leading to the war14
IV. Events Leading to the WAR:
  • 1938: Hitler clearly dangerous (strong military, campaigns against Jews)
    • March: Germany declares Austria part of Germany; with tanks threatens to take Sudetenland (border between Germany & Czech
    • US, France & Britain could have joined to stop Germany at this point. FDR pleads with Hitler for a peaceful settlement. Hitler refuses.
  • September 1938: Munich Conference- Britain, France, Italy & Germany meet to discuss Sudetenland crisis. Settlement gives Sudentenland to Germany.
iv events leading to the war16
IV. Events Leading to the WAR:
  • 1939: Spring- Hitler takes over the rest of Czechoslovakia.
    • August: Hitler makes “nonaggression” pact with USSR (won’t attack each other; agree to divide Poland)
    • September: Hitler invades Poland. Britain & France declare war against Germany.
v war begins
V. WAR BEGINS!

Hitler’s invasion of POLAND, September 1939

v war begins18
V. WAR BEGINS!
  • 1940:
    • Massive attack on France (Spring)
    • France occupied by Germany (Summer)
    • Air attack on Britain, “Battle of Britain”, fear that Britain would collapse.
v war begins19
V. WAR BEGINS!
  • 1940:
    • July: Japan announces Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
    • September: Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis pledges to resist U.S. entry into war
    • Late 1940: Japan took advantage of European desettlement (closed China)
v war begins20
V. WAR BEGINS!
  • Early 1941:
    • Japan moves aggressively in Southeast Asia (Indochina)
    • By summer, Japan has control of South Vietnam all the way down the coast
v war begins21
V. WAR BEGINS!
  • 1941:
    • Hitler broke “non-agression” pact with USSR
    • Late 1941: Germany moves towards Moscow
vi u s actions pre entry into war
VI. U.S. Actions (pre-entry into war)
  • U.S. committed itself to supporting Britain, and then USSR
    • Shipped massive military goods to Britain
    • 1940 Selective Training & Service Act (first peacetime draft in US)
    • Expansion of U.S. naval/air bases (1940)
vi u s actions continued pre entry into war
VI. U.S. Actions continued… (pre-entry into war)
  • U.S. committed itself to supporting Britain, and then USSR
    • U.S. started sending armed convoys to protect Britain from German submarines
      • In response to U.S. Greer incident (Sept 1941) where German subs shoot but miss U.S. destroyer
      • FDR says he’ll convoy British ships all way to Iceland and begin shooting German subs.
vi u s actions continued pre entry into war25
VI. U.S. Actions continued… (pre-entry into war)
  • U.S. committed itself to supporting Britain, and then USSR
    • “Lend-Lease” Act of 1941 (“arsenal of democracy)
      • Lend Britain (and other enemies of German) military goods to give back at the end of the war
      • U.S giving away armaments they could afford to produce and Britain could not afford to make
      • Also sent Lend-Lease aid to USSR after Germany invaded.
vi u s actions continued pre entry into war26
VI. U.S. Actions continued… (pre-entry into war)
  • Was FDR trying to sneak U.S. into the war?
    • FDR wanted a fight but was hesitant because: U.S. suffered in WWI and because he didn’t want to get involved in a way with Asia
      • During the war, U.S. did less to stop Japan than Germany. Little to no aid was sent to China to defend themselves against Japanese.
vi u s actions continued pre entry into war27
VI. U.S. Actions continued… (pre-entry into war)
  • Was FDR trying to sneak U.S. into the war?
    • 1940: U.S. applied economic pressure on Japan
      • Summer of 1941 U.S. cut off trade (embargo on fuel, oil, steel, etc.) with Japan when they invaded Indochina
      • U.S. was the world’s leading producer of oil at the time
      • Japan had no oil reserves so turned to Dutch East Indies & Philippines
      • Japan thought that U.S. would go to war to try to knock out their oil supply and therefore BOMBED PEARL HARBOR.
vi u s actions continued pre entry into war28
VI. U.S. Actions continued… (pre-entry into war)
  • FDR got Congress to declare war on Japan with only 1 dissenting vote
    • Germany declared war on U.S. a few days later.