APUSHWorld War II Notes Part A
Causes of the War in Europe • Versailles Peace Treaty what did the treaty do to cause WWII? a. War Guilt Clause b. Germany pays $33 billion in reparations
Causes of the War in Europe • Hitler rises to power what was his early life like? development of the Nazi Party… 1932 Elections in Germany… German depression ends German militarism 1936 Olympics Persecution of the Jews & others begins in 1933…examples?
Causes of the War in Europe (cont.) • Failure of the British & the French to stop Hitler Hitler wants lebensraum…”living space” military build-up (1933-1939) Rhineland (1936) Spanish Civil War (1936-39) Annexation of Austria (Mar. 1938) Munich Conference (Sept. 1938)…how was Hitler appeased? Sudetenland (Sept. 1938) Czechoslovakia (Mar. 1939) Poland (Sept. 1939)
Causes of the War in Europe (cont.) • Weaknesses of the League of Nations in what ways was the League weak? how did these contribute to WWII?
Causes of the War in the Pacific • Japan needed more living space…why? • Japan was resource poor…imported everything • Japan needed/built a strong military…why? • Japan wanted to control the Pacific (Japanese Empire) • Invasion of Manchuria (1931) • Invasion of China (1937) • League of Nations “inaction” • Pearl Harbor (Dec. 7, 1941) who planned it? What was the goal? did we know ahead of time?
Leaders in WWII Political Leaders: • Germany • Italy • USSR • Great Britain (2) • Vichy France • Free France • Japan (2) • US (2)
Leaders in WWII Military Leaders in European Theater: • USSR • Germany • Great Britain • US (3) Military Leaders in the Pacific Theater: • Japan • US (3)
APUSHWorld War II Notes Part B
1. Blitzkrieg “Lightning War” a. Luftwaffe attacks targets b. Tanks and heavy armor move in quickly c. Infantry follows to secure area d. Extremely fast and overwhelming warfare
2. Poland a. WWI-era planes b. Few tanks c. Many soldiers are on horseback d. Poland falls in six weeks
3. France a. Maginot Line b. 3rd most powerful military in the world c. Surrender in six weeks • Vichy Gov’t cooperates with the Nazis
4. Nazi Germany controls Western Europe a. Germany h. Luxembourg b. Austria i. Norway c. Czechoslovakia j. France d. Poland • Denmark • Belgium g. Netherlands
5. Non-aggression Pact between USSR and Germany a. Hitler and Stalin hated each other b. Why did they make this agreement? • Shocked the world • What was the agreement?
6. Battle of the Atlantic a. U-Boats b. Convoy System c. Goal: starve the Brits out of the war d. Sonar e. Enigma/Ultra (U-571)
7. Battle of Britain a. air war: Luftwaffe –vs- RAF b. Goal: destroy RAF to invade Britain • Operation Sea Lion • What was it? • Why was it cancelled? d. Radar & RAF saves the Brits
1. Invasion of the USSR “Operation Barbarossa” • Goal: Lebensraum “living space” • Red Army retreats hundreds of miles • Russian “scorched earth policy”
4. Battle of Leningrad • The city is under siege by the Germans for 900 days • Hitler orders no prisoners taken
5. Battle of Moscow • Stalin stays in town • Russian winter and Hitler’s stupidity/stubbornness defeat the German Army
6. Battle of Stalingrad a. Named after Stalin, war materials & factories, gateway to the Soviet oil fields b. “Enemy at the Gates” c. House to house, street to street fighting d. Hitler’s again leads to the German defeat…no retreat/no surrender order e. Turning point on the Eastern Front
7. Kursk tank battle a. largest tank battle in history • USSR Germany 1.3 million men 1.0 million men 3,600 tanks 2,700 tanks 2,400 planes 2,000 planes 20,000 artillery maybe 3,000-5,000! c. Germans are overwhelmed & pushed back
1. German invasion 2. Goal: capture the Suez Canal 3. British retreat a. Gen. Montgomery takes command b. El Alamein
4. US arrives (1942) a. Gen. Eisenhower b. Operation Torch c. Kasserine Pass 5. Rommel is finally defeated 6. Germans are squeezed out of North Africa