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APUSH World War II Notes

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  1. APUSHWorld War II Notes Part A

  2. Causes of the War in Europe • Versailles Peace Treaty what did the treaty do to cause WWII? a. War Guilt Clause b. Germany pays $33 billion in reparations

  3. Causes of the War in Europe • Hitler rises to power what was his early life like? development of the Nazi Party… 1932 Elections in Germany… German depression ends German militarism 1936 Olympics Persecution of the Jews & others begins in 1933…examples?

  4. Causes of the War in Europe (cont.) • Failure of the British & the French to stop Hitler Hitler wants lebensraum…”living space” military build-up (1933-1939) Rhineland (1936) Spanish Civil War (1936-39) Annexation of Austria (Mar. 1938) Munich Conference (Sept. 1938)…how was Hitler appeased? Sudetenland (Sept. 1938) Czechoslovakia (Mar. 1939) Poland (Sept. 1939)

  5. Munich Agreement

  6. Causes of the War in Europe (cont.) • Weaknesses of the League of Nations in what ways was the League weak? how did these contribute to WWII?

  7. Causes of the War in the Pacific • Japan needed more living space…why? • Japan was resource poor…imported everything • Japan needed/built a strong military…why? • Japan wanted to control the Pacific (Japanese Empire) • Invasion of Manchuria (1931) • Invasion of China (1937) • League of Nations “inaction” • Pearl Harbor (Dec. 7, 1941) who planned it? What was the goal? did we know ahead of time?

  8. Leaders in WWII Political Leaders: • Germany • Italy • USSR • Great Britain (2) • Vichy France • Free France • Japan (2) • US (2)

  9. Benito Mussolini & Adolf HitlerItaly & Germany

  10. Josef Stalin--USSR

  11. Neville Chamberlain & Winston ChurchillPrime Ministers of Great Britain

  12. Vichy France—Philippe Henri Petain

  13. Free France—Gen. Charles DeGaulle

  14. Japan: Emperor Hirohito &Prime Minister Hideki Tojo

  15. FDR & Truman—US Presidents

  16. Leaders in WWII Military Leaders in European Theater: • USSR • Germany • Great Britain • US (3) Military Leaders in the Pacific Theater: • Japan • US (3)

  17. Gen. Georgi Zhukov--USSR

  18. Field Marshall Erwin Rommel—Germany “Desert Fox”

  19. Gen. Bernard Montgomery--Britain

  20. Gen. George Marshall—Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff--US

  21. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower—Supreme Allied Commander in Europe

  22. Gen. George Patton—US Tank Commander

  23. Adm. Isoroku Yamamoto—Commander of the Japanese Navy

  24. Gen. Douglas MacArthur—Supreme Allied Commander in the Pacific

  25. Adm. Chester Nimitz—C in C of the US Pacific Fleet

  26. Adm. Bull Halsey—US Fleet Admiral in the Pacific

  27. APUSHWorld War II Notes Part B

  28. The War in Europe

  29. 1. Blitzkrieg “Lightning War” a. Luftwaffe attacks targets b. Tanks and heavy armor move in quickly c. Infantry follows to secure area d. Extremely fast and overwhelming warfare

  30. 2. Poland a. WWI-era planes b. Few tanks c. Many soldiers are on horseback d. Poland falls in six weeks

  31. 3. France a. Maginot Line b. 3rd most powerful military in the world c. Surrender in six weeks • Vichy Gov’t cooperates with the Nazis

  32. 4. Nazi Germany controls Western Europe a. Germany h. Luxembourg b. Austria i. Norway c. Czechoslovakia j. France d. Poland • Denmark • Belgium g. Netherlands

  33. Axis Expansion in Europe 1935-1941

  34. 5. Non-aggression Pact between USSR and Germany a. Hitler and Stalin hated each other b. Why did they make this agreement? • Shocked the world • What was the agreement?

  35. 6. Battle of the Atlantic a. U-Boats b. Convoy System c. Goal: starve the Brits out of the war d. Sonar e. Enigma/Ultra (U-571)

  36. 7. Battle of Britain a. air war: Luftwaffe –vs- RAF b. Goal: destroy RAF to invade Britain • Operation Sea Lion • What was it? • Why was it cancelled? d. Radar & RAF saves the Brits

  37. The Eastern Front

  38. 1. Invasion of the USSR “Operation Barbarossa” • Goal: Lebensraum “living space” • Red Army retreats hundreds of miles • Russian “scorched earth policy”

  39. 4. Battle of Leningrad • The city is under siege by the Germans for 900 days • Hitler orders no prisoners taken

  40. 5. Battle of Moscow • Stalin stays in town • Russian winter and Hitler’s stupidity/stubbornness defeat the German Army

  41. 6. Battle of Stalingrad a. Named after Stalin, war materials & factories, gateway to the Soviet oil fields b. “Enemy at the Gates” c. House to house, street to street fighting d. Hitler’s again leads to the German defeat…no retreat/no surrender order e. Turning point on the Eastern Front

  42. 7. Kursk tank battle a. largest tank battle in history • USSR Germany 1.3 million men 1.0 million men 3,600 tanks 2,700 tanks 2,400 planes 2,000 planes 20,000 artillery maybe 3,000-5,000! c. Germans are overwhelmed & pushed back

  43. d. Artillery and air superiority prove decisive for the Red Army

  44. North African Front (1942)

  45. 1. German invasion 2. Goal: capture the Suez Canal 3. British retreat a. Gen. Montgomery takes command b. El Alamein

  46. 4. US arrives (1942) a. Gen. Eisenhower b. Operation Torch c. Kasserine Pass 5. Rommel is finally defeated 6. Germans are squeezed out of North Africa