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World War II

World War II. In what ways did the peace settlement with Germany at the end of World War I make a new world war with Germany more likely?   How was Hitler able to rise from obscurity and lead millions of Germans to embrace the extreme and violent ideas of the Nazi Party? 

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World War II

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  1. World War II

  2. In what ways did the peace settlement with Germany at the end of World War I make a new world war with Germany more likely?   How was Hitler able to rise from obscurity and lead millions of Germans to embrace the extreme and violent ideas of the Nazi Party?  Why were the Western democracies unable to find a way to contain or stop Hitler from rearming and seizing one territory after another in the run up to all-out war?  What led the Japanese to attack the U.S., thereby provoking it into entering the war in the Pacific?  What advantages ultimately enabled the Allied forces to prevail against both Germany and Japan in World War II?  In what ways was World War II a “total war”? Essential Questions

  3. Versailles, June 1919 From left to right: Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Great Britain Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando of Italy Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France President Woodrow Wilson of the United States

  4. The Versailles Treaty Land Reparations War guilt League of Nations

  5. The Versailles Treaty (continued) German army reduced Germany barred from having tanks, an air force, or submarines Occupied DMZ west of the Rhineland Map showing German territory lost and the Rhineland DMZ

  6. The League of Nations Although President Wilson was the driving force behind the creation of the League of Nations, the United States did not join it.

  7. Rise of the Nazis Germany’s economic woes Political instability Fascism National Socialist German Workers’ Party

  8. Adolf Hitler

  9. The Nazis promoted a view of Germany as surrounded by enemies and threatened on all sides

  10. The Nazis Gain Power Hitler sworn in as Chancellor, 1933

  11. Japan

  12. The Invasion of Manchuria and the “Rape of Nanking”

  13. Italy Dictator Benito Mussolini addresses his followers

  14. The Invasion of Ethiopia Emperor Hailie Selassie of Ethiopia

  15. What aspects of the Versailles Treaty seem fairest to you? Which do not seem fair?   The cartoon in slide 6 of the PowerPoint shows Wilson blowing bubbles from a bowl labeled “idealism.” One of the bubbles is labeled “League of Nations.” What point does the cartoon make by showing the League as one of Wilson’s bubbles? Do you think the cartoon is fair to Wilson and to his idea of the League of Nations? Why or why not?  In what ways might the terms of the Versailles Treaty have aided Hitler in appealing to other Germans for support for his Nazis? Discussion Questions

  16. Many of the groups that supported Hitler for Chancellor in 1933 thought they could control him and get what they wanted from him. Why do you think so many of his supporters (as well as his opponents) underestimated him in this way?  Germany, Japan, and Italy united to form the “Axis” nations that started and fought together in World War II. What, if anything, do you think they had in common that might have led them to go to war together as they did? Discussion Questions (continued)

  17. Germany Rearms German troops march back into the Rhineland, 1936

  18. Building an Axis Signing of Tripartite pact to form the Axis Alliance Hitler and Mussolini Rome-Berlin Axis

  19. The Spanish Civil War Generals Francisco Franco and Emilio Moré, leaders of the coup

  20. The Spanish Civil War (continued) Italian soldiers in Spain

  21. New Weapons and Tactics Hitler tests weapons in Spanish Civil War

  22. The Destruction of Guernica

  23. Germany Takes Austria Nazi troops enter Austria

  24. The Munich Conference British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (left) and Hitler confer at the Munich Conference A weeping Czech woman reluctantly salutes Nazi soldiers as they march into the Sudetenland

  25. Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact

  26. German Advances, 1939

  27. Many historians use the word “appeasement” to describe French and British actions regarding Hitler from 1936 to 1939. Most of those historians have been harshly critical of this policy of appeasement. Do you agree with them? If so, what should France and Britain have done instead? The policy of appeasement is usually criticized most harshly with regard to Neville Chamberlain’s meeting with Hitler in Munich in 1938. What was agreed to there, and why has Chamberlain so often been harshly criticized for it? Discussion Questions

  28. Some say the worst act of appeasement actually came earlier in 1936 when Hitler re-occupied the Rhineland. Why might some see this as the worst act of appeasement? Many socialists and communists in the Western democracies were shocked when Stalin agreed to the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact in August 1939. Why do you suppose they were shocked? Why was this agreement so important to Hitler at that moment? Discussion Questions (continued)

  29. American Foreign Policy, 1932–1941 Isolationism Neutrality Acts FDR Lend-Lease The Atlantic Charter Churchill and FDR at sea during the Atlantic Charter talks

  30. France surrenders, 1940 The French Resistance Germany Takes France A Frenchman weeps as German troops march into Paris

  31. The Battle of Britain A London air raid shelter

  32. The Battle of Britain (continued)

  33. Germany Invades Russia

  34. Japanese Aggression General Hideki Tojo Locations of Japanese forces in November 1941

  35. Pearl Harbor

  36. The U.S. Declares War FDR signs the declaration of war against Japan

  37. Why was the Battle of Britain such an important turning point in the war for Britain, for Germany and for Russia?  After Pearl Harbor brought the U.S. into the war, Winston Churchill seemed certain of ultimate victory against both the Nazis and Japan. If he was right to be so certain, why did Japan attack the U.S. anyway and provoke it as it did? Discussion Questions

  38. The Battle of Midway The USS Yorktown receives a direct hit during the battle of Midway

  39. The Battle of Stalingrad

  40. North Africa

  41. Italy Surrenders Allies enter Rome

  42. The D-Day Invasion U.S. troops wade ashore at Normandy

  43. The Liberation of Paris Paris, 1944

  44. The Battle of the Bulge An American soldier guards German troops captured during the Battle of the Bulge U.S. troops advance through the snow toward the town of St. Vith, Belgium

  45. The Firebombing of Dresden

  46. Germany Surrenders

  47. V-E Day

  48. The Pacific War, 1944–1945 U.S. soldiers raise the American flag after capturing Iwo Jima

  49. Birth of the Atomic Bomb Preparing the atomic bomb to be dropped on Hiroshima

  50. Hiroshima

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