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The End of Colonies and the Rise of Modern Terrorism: Algeria. The History of Terrorism as a Strategy of Political Insurgency. World War II and the Decline of Empires. Nationalist sentiments in colonial areas boiled over after WWII. Why? Changed Expectations… The Atlantic Charter
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The History of Terrorism as a Strategy of Political Insurgency
Nationalist sentiments in colonial areas boiled over after WWII. Why?
The Atlantic Charter
The Decline of European Power
The Rise of the Soviet Union
The Strategy of Peoples War
The place looks a little dry
Declining Ottoman Empire and Expanding French Empire meet in 1829 Algiers.
French Colonization accelerates from 1848 to 1870
Land Seizures from Indigenous population accelerates
The Assimilation “Option” was about eliminating the Islamic culture
Collapsing agricultural prices and increased European Migration increased pressure on the indigenous traditions
Sporadic insurrections led to extended, disproportionate retaliations
Factors in the rise of a New Elite
Most of the New Elite favored Assimilation and increased ties to France
Factors against Assimilation
In 1927 the Etoile Nord-Afrique emerged demanding
Again, they spoke for the minority in Algeria – most Arabs and Berbers favored assimilation.
Most Colons thought things were just fine the way they were.
Who was really fighting who?
Some Key points about this phase
Start of Insurrection, November 1, 1954 All Saints Day
Phillipeville Massacre 123 civilians killed and subsequent retaliation (12,000 killed?)
Café Wars in France between FLN and its rivals
Battle for Algiers
French Public was fatigued after Indochina
International Publicity increased the pressure
Massive Military Commitment
Political Outcome through the referendum
Terrorism attacked the Political Will of the people through the illegal use of Violence, for a Political purpose, in an indiscriminate manner, to sow psychological fear, and to gain publicity
“The Battle For Algiers” is a good movie to show in class – reference that it was commissioned by the Algerian Government
My Battle for Algiers by Ted Morgan is a good read also.
And I would encourage students to at least Wiki Frantz Fanon, or perhaps read a segment of The Wretched of the Earth
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Winston S. Churchill