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ISLAMIC EXTREMISM & INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM BY GEORGE AKKLEQUIST JOINT TERRORISM TASK FORCE SAN FRANCISCO FBI INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS 1. Upon completion of this block of instruction, students will possess a basic understanding of the Islamic faith

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ISLAMIC EXTREMISM & INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM

BY

GEORGE AKKLEQUIST

JOINT TERRORISM TASK FORCE

SAN FRANCISCO

FBI


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INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS

  • 1. Upon completion of this block of instruction, students will possess a basic understanding of the Islamic faith

  • 2. Students will understand how the dynamics of Islam effect all aspects of International Terrorism today, to include effective investigative/intelligence strategies regarding interviewing; asset recruitment; and asset development.



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Purpose of Presentation

  • To familiarize the student/interviewer with the Arabic culture.

  • To suggestcommunication techniques and effective interrogation strategies in dealing with a subject from this culture.


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Jahilia

Barakat - Barakate

Jamaat E Tableigh

Mahdi

Ahl El Beit

Sahaba

Ansar

Shi’a

Sunni

Wahabi

Muslim Brotherhood

Mosque - Masjid

Mohammed

Ali

Abu Bakr

ARABIC TERMS - discussed in this session


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Understanding A Culture

To understand a culture, we must first

understand the beliefs and values of the people.

Remember - One of every six people on this planet is a Muslim!


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CORRECT PRONUNCIATION

  • Muslim - “long S & U sound - not a Z sound” Muslim not Muzlim

  • Islam - the same - Islam not Izlam

  • Mosque - better word is Masjid or Janeh


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HISTORY OF

ISLAM


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ERA BEFORE MOHAMMAD

  • Paganism - Tribalism

  • “Jahilia” or “al Jahilyya” - defined as the period of ignorance in the years before the Prophet Mohammed

  • Incredible cruelty toward female newborns

  • Other abominations


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ISLAM - THE ORIGINMECCA

  • The Prophet Mohammad was born in 570 AD -Mecca in Saudi Arabia.

  • In 610 AD, Mohammad received the first verses (God/Allah’s message) now contained in the Koran or Qu’ran from the angel Gabriel.

  • Over the course of the following 22 years Mohammad received further revelations.

  • Mohammad died in 632 AD.

  • Muhammad received the verses in Arabic.


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ISLAM - THE ORIGINMEDINA

  • Mohammad and his followers were forced to flee to Medina

  • Mohammad continued to receive the Arabic verses

  • However, beginning in Medina the tenor of the Koran takes on a more Jihadic/warlike/adversarial tone toward the enemies of Islam - Jews and Christians


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ISLAM - HISTORY

  • Second only to the Koran is the Sunnah or Ahadith

  • Composed of Hadiths - Islamic accounts into Mohammad's life

  • Provides Muslims with a window into Mohammad's life


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SCHISM IN ISLAM

  • Shi’a Muslims vs Sunni Muslims

  • Shi’a Muslims or Shiites are followers of Mohammad's cousin/son-in-law Ali.

  • Sunni Muslims follow the teachings of Abu Bakr, who died in 634.

  • Ali’s sons, Husain and Hassan were killed by Sunni forces in Karbala, Iraq in 680.


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SUNNI SUB-SECTS

  • Wahabi- Saudi Arabia - Usama bin Laden is a Wahabi Muslim

  • Mahadi - Sudan; Libya; Algeria

  • Hanafi - Pakistan

  • Hanbali - Pakistan


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WAHABI SUNNI

  • Traditionalists/Conservative - many terrorists evolve from this sect

  • Anything outside Koran is unacceptable.

  • Wahabi Sunnis control the Koran - UBL

    • Saudi Arabia is populated primarily by Wahabi Sunni.

  • Jesus, to a Wahabi, is a general who will someday come and lead them against the infidels.

  • Christians have elevated Jesus to a god - Muslims believe him to be a prophet.


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SHIA’S/SHIITES

  • Also believe strongly in the tenets of Islam

  • More spin room - believe in the ability of the Imams to interpret the Koran

  • More gray areas within the teachings of the Koran than that which the Sunnis believe

  • Less stringent - more interpretation

  • The Koran says what the clerics say it says.



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Arabic Values

  • A person’s dignity, honor and reputation are of paramount importance.

  • It is important to behave at all times in a way which will create a good impression.

  • Loyalty to one’s family takes precedence over personal needs, but not when it comes to Islam, the religion and the tasking.


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Arabic Beliefs

  • All things in life are controlled by God.

  • Children are the “jewels” of the family.

  • Wisdom increases with knowledge of Koran.

  • Inherent roles/tasking and responsibilities of men and women are vastly different.

    • In the Koran, men are tasked to teach daughters to swim, ride a horse and handle a weapon. Women take care of the next generation of soldier.


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Understanding Arabic Culture

  • An Arab is a person who speaks Arabic or who otherwise identifies with the culture and history of the Arab people.

  • Arabic culture and the Islamic faith are inseparable.

  • Islam is the most dominating, single influence in the Arab world , the second largest religion, and the world’s fastest growing religion.


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THE ARAB MIND

  • Formulated by:

    • Language

    • Geography

    • Food & lack of water

    • Attire

    • Customs and traditions

    • Family and tribal affiliation

    • Islam


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ISLAMTHE FIVE PILLARS

  • 1. Testimony/confession or “shahadah” - recited once daily and is the belief in the oneness of God and that Muhammad is his prophet

  • 2. Prayer or “salat” - 5 times a day and must face east toward Mecca, Saudi Arabia

  • 3. Charity or “zakat” - giving of alms. 2.5% of assets

  • 4. Fasting or “sawm” - Behavior during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan Ninth month of the lunar calender, usually November

  • 5. Pilgrimage or “haj/hajj/hadj” - all Muslims must travel to Mecca once in their lives


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MUSLIM NATION - 1.6 billion Muslims worldwide

ARAB SUNNIS

80 % - Saudi Arabia - majority

Sunnis - 1 billion - 9 in 10

ARAB SHI’A/SHIITES

20% of Muslim population

Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia

Shi’as - 170 million

NON-ARAB SUNNIS/AJAMI

Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan, other stans, Indonesia - huge population

NON-ARAB SHIITES

Iran, Afghanistan

Sufi Muslims - 240 million


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MUSLIM BREAKDOWN - WORLDWIDE

  • CIA Factbook lists 234 nations

  • Of these, Islam is the majority religion in 48

  • Islam is a significant minority religion in 26

  • Therefore, Islam is a powerful presence in one third of the countries in the world

  • 6 million Muslims in the USA


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Mauritania

Morocco

Algeria

Tunisia

Libya

Egypt

Sudan

Dijbouti

Somalia

Palestine

Lebanon

Jordan

Syria

Iraq

Kuwait

Bahrain

Qatar

UAE

Oman

Yemen

Saudi Arabia

21 COUNTRIES COMPOSE THE “ARAB WORLD”


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MIDDLE EAST

  • This refers to a larger area which includes Israel - Turkey - Iran - Afghanistan - Pakistan.

  • These are not “Arab “ countries.


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PROFILE OF THE FUNDAMENTALIST COMBATANT

  • Islam united all Muslims and combined:

    • Ideology

    • Law

    • Organizational structure

    • Family and region

    • Theology

  • Under the banner of globalization of Islam.


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PROFILE OF THE FUNDAMENTALIST COMBATANT

  • Age 8 the combatant begins to read and learn the Koran and the place of women

  • Age 12 he reads the Koran several hours per day - father indoctrinates him into the faith

  • Age 18 he has memorized the entire Koran

  • After age 18 - he comes to USA - a member of the Islamic Brotherhood


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PARAMILITARY MINDSET

  • Fundamentalist/extremists interpretation of the Koran:

    • General operational plans

    • Operational goals

    • Organizational structure

    • Sharia (legal) justification for all deadly actions


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PARAMILITARY MINDSET

  • Typical extremist:

    • Attends a Friday sermon at a Masjid

    • Recruited by Jamaat E Tableigh

    • Travels to Pakistan-indoctrinated into extremist views

    • Travels to Afghanistan to receive military and paramilitary training

    • Prepares for his Jihad and his TASKING


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JIHAD

  • Basic Definition:

    • Act in a paramilitary or military fashion against the enemies of Islam, foreign or domestic, and if dying in the process, the combatant will ascend to heaven with all his sins forgiven.

  • Islamic/Muslim Brotherhood (MB)

  • Family obligations


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MAJOR BELIEF OF ALL MUSLIMS

  • MAHDI - will come before Jesus to liberate Lebanon, Syria, Iraq in route to Saudi Arabia. 2 million man army and await Jesus

  • MAHDI is described in a Hadeth; tall, thin, bearded with angular features, large forehead, olive color and pointy nose - who will come out from deep hiding - sound familiar ??????


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USAMA BIN LADEN

  • Wahabi Sunni Muslim

  • Born in Yemen - raised in Saudi Arabia

  • Followed the teachings of two radical, fundamental Saudi clerics:

    • Ben Outheimeen

    • Ben Baz

    • Every major IT subject will have studied under these two men - both died last year.

    • They believe that Jihad is to kill Christians.


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FEMALES IN ISLAM

  • Great debate on this topic.

  • Orthodox Muslims argue that women gain true freedom in Islam.

  • Critics argue that women are in bondage in Islam; Mohammad was a chauvinist and pedophile

  • In many chapters in the Koran women are referred to as equals; but in many others they are not


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FEMALES IN ISLAM

  • Women come of age at 14 - stated in the Koran.

  • A man will always look at a female after age 14 in a sexual nature, according to Koran.

  • Mothers are the exception.

  • Thus the burqas


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MAINSTREAM MUSLIMS

VS

EXTREMIST MUSLIMS


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MAINSTREAM MUSLIMS

  • Mainstream Muslims

    • Totally disagree with extremist’s philosophy

    • All people of the world are Muslims

    • Non-Muslims are simply “lost”

    • Believe that non-Muslims will “flock back to Islam” Surah Al-Fatah - spoken to once

    • Historically, mainstream Muslims have been the silent weak majority of Islam

    • Vulnerable to teachings of extremists


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FUNDAMENTALISTS/EXTREMISTS

  • Use scripture in the Koran to justify terror campaign

  • Use the Koran to serve their political views

  • Rely on Sharia Law

  • Ben Outhiemeen & Ben Baz

  • Typically not vulnerable to the mainstream-Shi’a ideology


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TERRORIST GROUP

STRUCURE AND

CELL STRUCTURE


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FUNDAMENTALIST MOSQUESTRUCTURE

  • 1. Cleric/Sheik-highest religious authority

  • 2. Imam-not a constant position

  • 3. Theologist/Oulamaa-interpret the Sharia

  • 4. Politicos-PR representatives

  • 5. Financiers-show me the money!!!!

  • 6. Paramilitary

  • 7. Non-Government Organizations (NGOs)


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TERRORIST GROUP &CELL STRUCTURE

  • Muslim Brotherhood - all terrorists will belong to the MB

    • Large pool of recruits for NGOs

      • NGO-Jamaat E Tableigh; Jamaat Egatha; Jamaat Dawa; Lashkar E Taibe

    • Loosely connected - command and control

    • No real identified leader or figurehead

    • Koran and the strict guidelines guide the terrorist activities of the MB


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CELL STRUCTUREaka’s used

  • 1. Al Awlani - the leader

  • 2. Al Jare - Currier; Infantryman

  • 3. Al Kannas - Sniper/killer with one shot

  • 4. Al Mukabir - Communications/Intelligence

  • 5. Al Hakeem - Medic/doctor



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ASSET RECRUITMENT

  • Identification

    • examine last name for:

      • country of origin

      • brotherhood affiliation

      • tribal affiliation

      • sect affiliation


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ASSET RECRUITMENTcont.

  • Other identification considerations

    • family

    • job

    • motivation

    • finances

    • criminal history

  • Vetting a Sunni Muslim should include a polygraph to gage the lack of loyalty to the MB


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VETTING A SUNNI MUSLIM

  • A Sunni may not have or exhibit any loyalty to a country or entity except the MB

  • Should include a polygraph to gage his lack of loyalty to the MB

  • Polygrapher may need to explain that the MB is an organization to LEO

  • Displacement of blame


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INTERVIEWING

AND

INTERROGATION


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INTERVIEWING VIOLENT TRUE BELIEVERS (VTB)

  • Greatest mistake made by interviewers of these types is the absence of preparation:

    • 1. Selecting the interviewer

    • 2. Gathering data before the interview

    • 3. Defining the approach and direction of the interview

    • 4. Choosing the place for the interview

    • 5. Use the analysts


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INTERVIEWING AND INTERROGATION

  • Sunni Muslim

    • Individual profile based on attachment to MB

      • An Al Qaeda suspect will have the MB commonality with Hamas suspect, but will have different strategic disciplines

      • Sunnis draw their collective strength from the Koran and the organization to which they belong


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VTBs

  • Motivated by deeply held beliefs that are rigid and completely justified in his eyes

  • Beliefs based solely on religion - Islam

  • He will believe that he is an agent of his god.

  • His killing/terroristics acts are sanctioned by his god.

  • Quite certain of his destiny


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INTERVIEWING THE VTB

  • He has memorized the Koran from cover to cover.

  • Especially passages and phrases that justify his suicidal/homicidal intent

  • He will ignore any passages that are contradictory to his beliefs.

  • His tightly held rationalizations are not open to debate or questioning.

  • Critical thinking is forbidden - absolute belief in righteousness of his cause.


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VTBs cont.

  • There should be no more than two interviewers.

  • If translator is needed, should be only other person in the room.

  • Translator should be directed to translate the exact words.

  • No observers in the room.

  • Interviewer - knowledge or no knowledge of Arabic/Islam culture????


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VTBs

  • Male - female ? GITMO examples

  • Al-Qaeda Training Manual, 17th lesson teaches the VTB to expect “psychological warfare and intellectual combat.”

  • Harsh words and torture are also expected.

  • Manual, “the room is ordinary, containing one or more desks, chairs and torture devices as needed”


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VTBs

  • Manual - directs the “brother” to memorize the appearance of the interrogation building and the officers.

    • Concentrate on the route and try to memorize signs in order to benefit future operations and plan development.

    • Always counts step, measures distances from cell to interrogation room

    • Always collecting


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VTBs

  • “Cognitive dissonance”

    • Behaving in ways quite different from that which the VTB expects from his manual

    • May confuse and disorient him

    • Will exert pressure on the VTB

    • Asking to see a medical examiner and that evidence of the torture be entered in any official report. - - Stall - - classic

    • Manual familiarity


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VTBs

  • Establish rapport? Pros and cons--Let’s discuss!!!!!!!!

    • Gitmo experiences

    • Smile

    • Listen carefully

    • Find something in common

    • Mirror the interviewee


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VTBs and MUSLIMS IN GENERAL

  • Avoid interview blunders

    • Soles of shoes considered great insult

    • Cold and unfriendly demeanor considered an insult

    • Showing impatience - watch, tapping fingers

    • Disrespect Islam and argue religion

    • Interviewing the female


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VTBs - INTERVIEW TECHNIQUES

  • Patience and flexibility

  • Conducted in 2 to 3 hour time increments over several days

  • Do not be predictable - change times.

  • Stare down if necessary.

  • Key to interviewing VTB is to get him to talk about anything - Islam.

  • With these folks it is all about Islam/Israel.


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VTBs/SUNNI/WAHABI

  • Ask the VTB/Sunni, “Are you Muslim?”

  • If he answers “yes, and thank God” and places his hand on his chest, he is very far to the right,

    • Likely a fundamentalist and very likely an extremist - Where do you pray?

    • Anywhere - alone - 5 times a day - attend Mosque to stay within Islamic community


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INTERVIEW TECHNIQUES

  • 3RD pillar of Islam can be important in interviewing VTB - Charity/”Zakat”.

  • Interviewee is allowed by the Koran to tell you, if asked, how and where he contributed $$ to the cause.

  • Use Islam against him - show him his actions have “hurt” Islam.

  • His honor lies in defeating you during interview.


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TECHNIQUES

  • Small talk about family with a VTB Muslim will be superfluous.

    • A martyr will have already tended to his family as directed by the Koran.

    • He will have made arrangements to provide money for his family for 2 years and to provide a residence for 2 years.


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Reveal some secrets

Ask to see doctor

Ask that evidence of torture be entered in record

Raise one voice, curse the interrogator

Be patient, resistant, silent and prayerful

Proudly take a firm and opposing stance

Overreact to pain

Pretend to be naïve and ignorant

Take advantage of visits to communicate with brothers outside prison

Shout slogans from prison

Be steadfast

VTB COUNTERMEASURES(taught during Al Qaeda training)


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COUNTERMEASURES

  • The most common countermeasure appears to be a cover story that the individual’s behaviors and/or travels are only to teach or study Islam.


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MODIFICATION

OF

INTELLIGENCE

CYCLE


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CLASSIFICATION OF INTELLIGENCE

  • Every interview will yield 2 types of intelligence:

    • Strategic

    • Tactical

  • Strategic collection is critical for analysts

  • Tactical collection is critical for security

  • Align all intelligence into the larger framework of IT investigations


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ARABIC WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

OF HIGH INVESTIGATIVE

VALUE


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NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

  • Jamaat E Tableigh - “the group that reforms”

  • Jamaat Dawa - “the group that calls someone to their cause”

  • Jamaat Eghatha - “the group that assists and rescues”

  • Lashkar E Taibe - specific to Pakistan - similar to above


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1. “Bayaat” - allegiance to

2. “Barakat” - Blessings

3. “Barakate” reference to UBL at Gitmo

4. “Ahl El Beit” - The Core, trace their descent to Mohammed

5. “Sahaba” - The trusted company, lesser that Ahl El Beit

6. “Al Ansar” - The supporters, mostly Sunni, non-Arabs

OTHER CRITICAL TERMS


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SUMMARY

  • Islam was created beginning in 610 AD. The values, attitudes and beliefs demanded by Islam then and now continue to be the foundation for all that is occurring with regard to terroristic acts.

  • A terrorist views himself as a loyal soldier for Allah.

  • He will never give up in his attempt to install Islamic values worldwide.