ISLAMIC EXTREMISM & INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM BY GEORGE AKKLEQUIST JOINT TERRORISM TASK FORCE SAN FRANCISCO FBI
INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS • 1. Upon completion of this block of instruction, students will possess a basic understanding of the Islamic faith • 2. Students will understand how the dynamics of Islam effect all aspects of International Terrorism today, to include effective investigative/intelligence strategies regarding interviewing; asset recruitment; and asset development.
Purpose of Presentation • To familiarize the student/interviewer with the Arabic culture. • To suggestcommunication techniques and effective interrogation strategies in dealing with a subject from this culture.
Jahilia Barakat - Barakate Jamaat E Tableigh Mahdi Ahl El Beit Sahaba Ansar Shi’a Sunni Wahabi Muslim Brotherhood Mosque - Masjid Mohammed Ali Abu Bakr ARABIC TERMS - discussed in this session
Understanding A Culture To understand a culture, we must first understand the beliefs and values of the people. Remember - One of every six people on this planet is a Muslim!
CORRECT PRONUNCIATION • Muslim - “long S & U sound - not a Z sound” Muslim not Muzlim • Islam - the same - Islam not Izlam • Mosque - better word is Masjid or Janeh
HISTORY OF ISLAM
ERA BEFORE MOHAMMAD • Paganism - Tribalism • “Jahilia” or “al Jahilyya” - defined as the period of ignorance in the years before the Prophet Mohammed • Incredible cruelty toward female newborns • Other abominations
ISLAM - THE ORIGINMECCA • The Prophet Mohammad was born in 570 AD -Mecca in Saudi Arabia. • In 610 AD, Mohammad received the first verses (God/Allah’s message) now contained in the Koran or Qu’ran from the angel Gabriel. • Over the course of the following 22 years Mohammad received further revelations. • Mohammad died in 632 AD. • Muhammad received the verses in Arabic.
ISLAM - THE ORIGINMEDINA • Mohammad and his followers were forced to flee to Medina • Mohammad continued to receive the Arabic verses • However, beginning in Medina the tenor of the Koran takes on a more Jihadic/warlike/adversarial tone toward the enemies of Islam - Jews and Christians
ISLAM - HISTORY • Second only to the Koran is the Sunnah or Ahadith • Composed of Hadiths - Islamic accounts into Mohammad's life • Provides Muslims with a window into Mohammad's life
SCHISM IN ISLAM • Shi’a Muslims vs Sunni Muslims • Shi’a Muslims or Shiites are followers of Mohammad's cousin/son-in-law Ali. • Sunni Muslims follow the teachings of Abu Bakr, who died in 634. • Ali’s sons, Husain and Hassan were killed by Sunni forces in Karbala, Iraq in 680.
SUNNI SUB-SECTS • Wahabi- Saudi Arabia - Usama bin Laden is a Wahabi Muslim • Mahadi - Sudan; Libya; Algeria • Hanafi - Pakistan • Hanbali - Pakistan
WAHABI SUNNI • Traditionalists/Conservative - many terrorists evolve from this sect • Anything outside Koran is unacceptable. • Wahabi Sunnis control the Koran - UBL • Saudi Arabia is populated primarily by Wahabi Sunni. • Jesus, to a Wahabi, is a general who will someday come and lead them against the infidels. • Christians have elevated Jesus to a god - Muslims believe him to be a prophet.
SHIA’S/SHIITES • Also believe strongly in the tenets of Islam • More spin room - believe in the ability of the Imams to interpret the Koran • More gray areas within the teachings of the Koran than that which the Sunnis believe • Less stringent - more interpretation • The Koran says what the clerics say it says.
Arabic Values • A person’s dignity, honor and reputation are of paramount importance. • It is important to behave at all times in a way which will create a good impression. • Loyalty to one’s family takes precedence over personal needs, but not when it comes to Islam, the religion and the tasking.
Arabic Beliefs • All things in life are controlled by God. • Children are the “jewels” of the family. • Wisdom increases with knowledge of Koran. • Inherent roles/tasking and responsibilities of men and women are vastly different. • In the Koran, men are tasked to teach daughters to swim, ride a horse and handle a weapon. Women take care of the next generation of soldier.
Understanding Arabic Culture • An Arab is a person who speaks Arabic or who otherwise identifies with the culture and history of the Arab people. • Arabic culture and the Islamic faith are inseparable. • Islam is the most dominating, single influence in the Arab world , the second largest religion, and the world’s fastest growing religion.
THE ARAB MIND • Formulated by: • Language • Geography • Food & lack of water • Attire • Customs and traditions • Family and tribal affiliation • Islam
ISLAMTHE FIVE PILLARS • 1. Testimony/confession or “shahadah” - recited once daily and is the belief in the oneness of God and that Muhammad is his prophet • 2. Prayer or “salat” - 5 times a day and must face east toward Mecca, Saudi Arabia • 3. Charity or “zakat” - giving of alms. 2.5% of assets • 4. Fasting or “sawm” - Behavior during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan Ninth month of the lunar calender, usually November • 5. Pilgrimage or “haj/hajj/hadj” - all Muslims must travel to Mecca once in their lives
MUSLIM NATION - 1.6 billion Muslims worldwide ARAB SUNNIS 80 % - Saudi Arabia - majority Sunnis - 1 billion - 9 in 10 ARAB SHI’A/SHIITES 20% of Muslim population Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia Shi’as - 170 million NON-ARAB SUNNIS/AJAMI Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan, other stans, Indonesia - huge population NON-ARAB SHIITES Iran, Afghanistan Sufi Muslims - 240 million
MUSLIM BREAKDOWN - WORLDWIDE • CIA Factbook lists 234 nations • Of these, Islam is the majority religion in 48 • Islam is a significant minority religion in 26 • Therefore, Islam is a powerful presence in one third of the countries in the world • 6 million Muslims in the USA
Mauritania Morocco Algeria Tunisia Libya Egypt Sudan Dijbouti Somalia Palestine Lebanon Jordan Syria Iraq Kuwait Bahrain Qatar UAE Oman Yemen Saudi Arabia 21 COUNTRIES COMPOSE THE “ARAB WORLD”
MIDDLE EAST • This refers to a larger area which includes Israel - Turkey - Iran - Afghanistan - Pakistan. • These are not “Arab “ countries.
PROFILE OF THE FUNDAMENTALIST COMBATANT • Islam united all Muslims and combined: • Ideology • Law • Organizational structure • Family and region • Theology • Under the banner of globalization of Islam.
PROFILE OF THE FUNDAMENTALIST COMBATANT • Age 8 the combatant begins to read and learn the Koran and the place of women • Age 12 he reads the Koran several hours per day - father indoctrinates him into the faith • Age 18 he has memorized the entire Koran • After age 18 - he comes to USA - a member of the Islamic Brotherhood
PARAMILITARY MINDSET • Fundamentalist/extremists interpretation of the Koran: • General operational plans • Operational goals • Organizational structure • Sharia (legal) justification for all deadly actions
PARAMILITARY MINDSET • Typical extremist: • Attends a Friday sermon at a Masjid • Recruited by Jamaat E Tableigh • Travels to Pakistan-indoctrinated into extremist views • Travels to Afghanistan to receive military and paramilitary training • Prepares for his Jihad and his TASKING
JIHAD • Basic Definition: • Act in a paramilitary or military fashion against the enemies of Islam, foreign or domestic, and if dying in the process, the combatant will ascend to heaven with all his sins forgiven. • Islamic/Muslim Brotherhood (MB) • Family obligations
MAJOR BELIEF OF ALL MUSLIMS • MAHDI - will come before Jesus to liberate Lebanon, Syria, Iraq in route to Saudi Arabia. 2 million man army and await Jesus • MAHDI is described in a Hadeth; tall, thin, bearded with angular features, large forehead, olive color and pointy nose - who will come out from deep hiding - sound familiar ??????
USAMA BIN LADEN • Wahabi Sunni Muslim • Born in Yemen - raised in Saudi Arabia • Followed the teachings of two radical, fundamental Saudi clerics: • Ben Outheimeen • Ben Baz • Every major IT subject will have studied under these two men - both died last year. • They believe that Jihad is to kill Christians.
FEMALES IN ISLAM • Great debate on this topic. • Orthodox Muslims argue that women gain true freedom in Islam. • Critics argue that women are in bondage in Islam; Mohammad was a chauvinist and pedophile • In many chapters in the Koran women are referred to as equals; but in many others they are not
FEMALES IN ISLAM • Women come of age at 14 - stated in the Koran. • A man will always look at a female after age 14 in a sexual nature, according to Koran. • Mothers are the exception. • Thus the burqas
MAINSTREAM MUSLIMS VS EXTREMIST MUSLIMS
MAINSTREAM MUSLIMS • Mainstream Muslims • Totally disagree with extremist’s philosophy • All people of the world are Muslims • Non-Muslims are simply “lost” • Believe that non-Muslims will “flock back to Islam” Surah Al-Fatah - spoken to once • Historically, mainstream Muslims have been the silent weak majority of Islam • Vulnerable to teachings of extremists
FUNDAMENTALISTS/EXTREMISTS • Use scripture in the Koran to justify terror campaign • Use the Koran to serve their political views • Rely on Sharia Law • Ben Outhiemeen & Ben Baz • Typically not vulnerable to the mainstream-Shi’a ideology
TERRORIST GROUP STRUCURE AND CELL STRUCTURE
FUNDAMENTALIST MOSQUESTRUCTURE • 1. Cleric/Sheik-highest religious authority • 2. Imam-not a constant position • 3. Theologist/Oulamaa-interpret the Sharia • 4. Politicos-PR representatives • 5. Financiers-show me the money!!!! • 6. Paramilitary • 7. Non-Government Organizations (NGOs)
TERRORIST GROUP &CELL STRUCTURE • Muslim Brotherhood - all terrorists will belong to the MB • Large pool of recruits for NGOs • NGO-Jamaat E Tableigh; Jamaat Egatha; Jamaat Dawa; Lashkar E Taibe • Loosely connected - command and control • No real identified leader or figurehead • Koran and the strict guidelines guide the terrorist activities of the MB
CELL STRUCTUREaka’s used • 1. Al Awlani - the leader • 2. Al Jare - Currier; Infantryman • 3. Al Kannas - Sniper/killer with one shot • 4. Al Mukabir - Communications/Intelligence • 5. Al Hakeem - Medic/doctor
ASSET RECRUITMENT • Identification • examine last name for: • country of origin • brotherhood affiliation • tribal affiliation • sect affiliation
ASSET RECRUITMENTcont. • Other identification considerations • family • job • motivation • finances • criminal history • Vetting a Sunni Muslim should include a polygraph to gage the lack of loyalty to the MB
VETTING A SUNNI MUSLIM • A Sunni may not have or exhibit any loyalty to a country or entity except the MB • Should include a polygraph to gage his lack of loyalty to the MB • Polygrapher may need to explain that the MB is an organization to LEO • Displacement of blame
INTERVIEWING AND INTERROGATION
INTERVIEWING VIOLENT TRUE BELIEVERS (VTB) • Greatest mistake made by interviewers of these types is the absence of preparation: • 1. Selecting the interviewer • 2. Gathering data before the interview • 3. Defining the approach and direction of the interview • 4. Choosing the place for the interview • 5. Use the analysts
INTERVIEWING AND INTERROGATION • Sunni Muslim • Individual profile based on attachment to MB • An Al Qaeda suspect will have the MB commonality with Hamas suspect, but will have different strategic disciplines • Sunnis draw their collective strength from the Koran and the organization to which they belong
VTBs • Motivated by deeply held beliefs that are rigid and completely justified in his eyes • Beliefs based solely on religion - Islam • He will believe that he is an agent of his god. • His killing/terroristics acts are sanctioned by his god. • Quite certain of his destiny