The Growth of the Thirteen Colonies 1607-1770
Life in the Colonies • Essential Question: • How did geography affect the economic development of the three colonial regions?
Population Growth • 1700 – population of 250,000 colonists; 1770s – 2.5 million colonists • 1700 – 28,000 Africans; 1770s – 500,000 Africans
Population Growth • Immigration • Women marry early and have large families • America is a healthy place to live
Farming • Main economic activity for all colonies • Farms in North are smaller than those in the South • Why? _______________________________________________ • New England farmers use subsistence farming
Commerce in New England • Small businesses • Skilled craftsman trade their goods • Shipbuilding (Lumber!!!) • Fishing
Colonial Trade • Northern coastal cities • Link Northern and Southern colonies • Link America to other parts of the world
Middle Passage • Enslaved Africans march to West African coast, traded to Europeans, branded and forced onto a ship • Shipped to the West Indies (Middle Passage) • Travel to slave markets in American ports
The Middle Colonies • Mild climate – produce much bigger harvests than in New England • Grew cash crops • Farmers sent cargoes of wheat and livestock to NYC and Philadelphia for shipment • Busy ports • Largest cities in the American colonies
The Southern Colonies and Farming • Rich soil, warm climate • Large farms producing cash crops • Little industry develops
Tobacco and Rice • Tobacco • Main crop in Maryland and Virginia
Tobacco and Rice • Rice • Main crop in South Carolina and Georgia • Very strenuous work = reliance on slave labor • Very profitable crop – By 1750s South Carolina and Georgia have fastest growing economies in the colonies
Plantations • Self contained communities • Might include slave cabins, barns, stables, blacksmith shop, carpenter shop, store rooms, kitchens, chapel, school • Independent small farmers outnumber large plantations but plantation owners are wealthier and more influential
Slavery • Some enslaved Africans might do housework. Most work in the fields under the watch of overseers • 1705 – Virginia creates a slave code • Helps define relationship between enslaved people and free people • Illegal to teach Africans to read or write • Can’t leave plantation without written permission • Can’t assemble in large groups • Whipped for minor offenses • Hanged or burned to death for major offenses
Criticisms of Slavery • More important to economic success of Southern colonies • Less support for slavery in Northern colonies • Puritans • Quakers • Mennonites
Making Connections • Answer the Essential Question • How did geography affect the economic development of the three colonial regions? • New England • Middle • Southern
Government, Religion and Culture • Although the American colonies developed some self-government, the British still set many laws, especially those concerning trade • American Spirit: Americans were beginning to view themselves differently from the way Britain viewed them • England viewed its North American colonies as an economic resource (MERCANTILISM)
Government, Religion and Culture • Navigation Acts • Colonial merchants could not use foreign ships to export goods • Colonists could not trade certain products outside England’s empire • Controls on trade would later cause more conflict between the American colonies and England
Colonial Government • Trial by Jury • Government is not all powerful! • Limited government • Representative government
Type of Colony • Type of Colony • Charter • Characteristics • Settlers given a charter to establish the colony • Elected governors and members of the legislature • Colonies • Connecticut, Rhode Island
Types of Colonies • Type of Colony • Proprietary • Characteristics • Proprietor owned land and made laws • Proprietor appointed governors and members of upper house of legislature • Colonists elect lower house of legislature • Colonies • Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania
Types of Colonies • Type of Colony • Royal • Characteristics • Britain rules directly • Conflicts occur when officials try to enforce tax laws and trade restrictions • Colonies • Georgia, Virginia, NJ, NY, SC, NC, Mass
Voting Rights • White men who owned property • Proportion of people in colonies participating in government is higher than anywhere in Europe • Valuable training for when colonies become independent
Family Roles • Family is basic foundation of colonial society • Men are formal heads of household • Women run households, care for children, had few rights • Widows or unmarried women could run businesses and own property but could not vote
Education • High value on education • Many colonies eventually developed schools • Harvard College: Established by Puritans in 1636
Answer the Essential Question • In what ways was an American culture developing during the colonial period? • Limited government, representative government, family is the basis of society
France and Britain Clash • Essential Question: • Why did conflict arise in North America between France and Great Britain?
British and French Rivalry • Rivalry between Great Britain and France led to a war for control of North America • Both wanted control land west of the Appalachian Mountains (Ohio River Valley) • Fighting breaks out in 1740s
Native Americans Take Sides • French are interested in fur trade while English are interested in colonization • French had many Native American allies; intermarriage is common and customs are followed • French missionaries convert many Native Americans to Catholicism • Native Americans often help French and raid British settlements
The Iroquois Confederacy • Most powerful group of Native Americans in the East (New York) • Five Nations: Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, (Tuscarora, 1722) • Iroquois skillfully play French and British against one another and dominate the Great Lakes area • Mid 1770s – become British allies
Washington’s First Command • 1754 – 22 year old George Washington becomes a lieutenant colonel • Washington and 150 militia men sent to build a fort in the Ohio River Valley • French already built Fort Duquesne • Washington attacked and was defeated • Washington is released and becomes colonial hero for striking the first blow against the French
The Albany Plan of Union • Developed by Benjamin Franklin • Representatives adopted a plan of unified colonial government to stand against the French • No colonies approved the plan. They didn’t want to give up their power. • French and Indian War erupts
Making Connections • Why do you think Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union? • How did the Iroquois remain independent from both the British and the French? How did that change? • Answer the Essential Question • Why did conflict arise in North America between France and Great Britain?
The French and Indian War • Essential Question: • How did the outcome of the French and Indian war determine who controlled North America?
The French and Indian War • Battle of Quebec (1759) • Part of a larger struggle between Britain and France for • Control of world trade • Power over the seas
The British Take Action • French are building forts throughout Great Lakes and Ohio River Valley • French network of alliances with native Americans allows them to control large areas of land • 1754 – Britain steps in to help colonists fight the French
Britain Declares War on France • Fighting in America helps start Seven Years’ War in Europe • War is declared in 1756 • Early on the French are • Capturing British forts • Native American allies are raiding frontier farms from NY to PA • Killed settlers, burned farmhouses and crops • Drive many families back toward to coast
Pitt Takes Charge • William Pitt: Great British military planner • Sent forces to recapture fortresses previously taken by French • Very successful • Captured Fort Duquesne in Pennsylvania and renamed it Fort Pitt
The Fall of New France • The fall of Quebec and Montreal ended the war • British troops captured Quebec in 1759
The Treaty of Paris • 1763 – Forces France to give Canada and most lands west of the Mississippi River to Great Britain • Also receives Spanish Florida and the port at New Orleans • Marks the end of France as a power in North America
Trouble on the Frontier • French loss is a great blow to Native Americans • British start pushing further west • Pontiac’s War • Ottawa Chief Pontiac united Native Americans against British • 1763 – Killed settlers along PA and VA frontiers • 1765 – British forces defeat Pontiac and his allies
Proclamation of 1763 • To prevent more fighting, British set the Appalachian Mountains as the temporary western border • Colonists who had already brought land west of the mountains were furious • More conflicts would soon arise between Britain and the colonists.
Answer the Essential Question • Answer the Essential Question: • How did the outcome of the French and Indian war determine who controlled North America?