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Music: An Appreciation 8 th Edition by Roger Kamien . 古典時期 The Classical Period 1750-1820. Presentation Development: Robert Elliott University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff. 古典時期 Classical Period. Time-line: Seven Years’ War-1756-1763 Louis XVI in France-1774-1792

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music an appreciation 8 th edition by roger kamien

Music: An Appreciation8th Editionby Roger Kamien

古典時期

The Classical Period

1750-1820

Presentation Development: Robert Elliott

University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff

classical period
古典時期Classical Period
  • Time-line:
    • Seven Years’ War-1756-1763
    • Louis XVI in France-1774-1792
    • Am. Declaration of Independence-1776
    • French Revolution-1789
    • Napoleon: first French consul-1799
    • Napoleonic Wars-1803-1815
    • Goethe: Faust-1808
    • Austin: Pride and Prejudice-1813
the classical era
The Classical Era
  • Faith in the power of reason
  • Undermining of traditional authority
  • Scientific advances changed world view
  • Social organization
  • Religious establishment
  • Age of Enlightenment
  • Rise of the middle class
  • Visual Art
  • Moved away from ornate Baroque style
  • Note picture p. 147
chpt 1
Chpt. 1: 古典風格
  • 轉變期 :自1730年代延伸至1770年代
  • 重要先鋒大師Bach的兒子Carl Philip Emmanuel Bach (1717-1788 C.P.E. Bach) 及Johann Christian(1735-1782,簡稱J.C.Bach)
  • 音樂與藝術之間顯著共通點強調的平衡與清晰
  • Joseph Haydn海頓
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart莫札特
  • Ludwig van Beethoven貝多芬
slide5

Chpt. 1-The Classical Style

古典風格的特色

  • 樂章內或樂章間的對比
  • 情緒的對比
  • 節奏
  • 包含了豐富的節奏型式
  • 織體
  • 基本上是屬於主曲調音樂
  • 旋律
  • 旋律悅耳動聽且容易唱,帶民謠風或通俗旋律
  • 力度與鋼琴
  • 致力於情感表達的細緻
    • 導致了漸進力度的廣泛使用
    • 作曲家對漸進力度的需求,促使鋼琴取代大鍵琴
  • 數字低音的消失
slide6

Chpt. 1- The Classical Style

古典時期的管絃樂團

  • 樂團標準化組合
  • 管絃樂團的演出人數多
  • Still smaller than that of today
  • 古典作曲家帶出各種樂器獨特的音色
  • 不會像巴洛克作曲家把不同的樂器以相同的方式處理
  • 旋律在不同樂器間移轉
slide7

Chpt. 1- The Classical Style

古典曲式

  • 器樂曲通常是由幾個不同速度及特性的樂章所構成
  • 大致可分成四個樂章
  • 1st—快板樂章
  • 2nd—慢板樂章
  • 3rd—舞曲相關的樂章
  • 4th—快板樂章
  • Multi-movement works for instrumental groups:
  • 交響曲是為管絃樂團
  • 弦樂四重奏(String quartet)為兩把小提琴、一把中提琴,及一把大提琴
  • 奏鳴曲(Sonata)則是為一至兩個樂器而寫
chpt 2
Chpt. 2:古典時期的作曲家、贊助者和群眾
  • 社會潮流
  • Haydn大半生服侍一個富有的貴族世家
  • Mozart) at court, broke away, died broke
  • Beethoven即以獨立音樂家的姿態立足
  • 除了物質生活,還有更多富裕的新興中產階級追求貴族式的享受(戲劇、文學與音樂 )
  • 入場費,公開音樂會在歐洲出現
  • 古典時期的作曲家,創作的樂曲易於演奏
  • Rise of instrument manufacture industry
  • Composers wrote playable music that would sell
  • 嚴謹的創作融入了民間與通俗的音樂素材
slide9

Chpt. 2- Composer, Patron, and Public

維也納
  • 維也納在古典時期是歐洲的音樂中心
  • 來到維也納學習、發展而獲得盛名
  • 貴族都有時在維也納過冬,有時候帶著自己私人的樂團
  • Musicians, including Mozart and Beethoven, frequently played gigs in wealthy homes
  • 演奏家們組成的戶外樂團
chpt 3
Chpt. 3:奏鳴曲式
  • 奏鳴曲快板形式
  • 指在「單一」樂章所用的曲式
  • 由三個主要的段落構成
  • 呈式部(Exposition)
  • 主題首次呈現
  • 呈式部的重複演奏
  • 發展部(Development)
  • 擴大了樂曲的張力
  • 主題被分解成幾個片段或小單位
  • 再現部(Recapitulation)
  • 衝突也在此得到舒解
  • 主題都回到主調重述
  • 尾聲(Coda)
listening

Chpt. 3-Sonata Form

Listening

第40號G小調交響曲,莫札特 , K. 550(1788)

First movement

Listening Guide:

Note: Sonata Form

Exposition

Development

Recapitulation

Coda

chpt 4
Chpt. 4:主題與變奏曲式
  • Single part form—no large contrasting “B” section
    • (A A’ A” A”’…)
  • 基本的樂思,也就是主題
  • 每個變奏段落中一再地加以改變
  • 變奏的長度大多和主題一樣
  • 改變成旋律、節奏、和聲、伴奏、力度、或音色上的改變
listening1

Chpt. 4-Theme and Variations

Listening

第94號G大調交響曲 Surprise ,Haydn

(Surprise Symphony; 1791)

Second Movement

Listening Guide: p. 210

Brief Set, CD 2:10

Note: Theme and Variations form

slide14
小步舞曲與三重中段
  • Ternary form based upon stately court dance of the Baroque
  • Each ternary part is itself ternary:

MinuetTrioMinuet

ABA

||: a :||: b a’ :|

|: c :||: d c’ :|

| a b a’ ||

  • Return of the Minuet is usually marked on the music as da capo
listening2

Chpt. 5-Minuet and Trio

Listening

Eine Kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music; 1787), K. 525

by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Third Movement

Listening Guide: p. 212 Brief Set, CD 2:32

Note: Minuet and Trio form

MinuetTrioMinuet

ABA

||: a :||: b a’ :||: c :||: d c’ :|| a b a’ ||

chpt 6 rondo
Chpt. 6:輪旋曲式(Rondo)
  • 主要主題不斷重回
  • 指一個主要主題,其他主題做輪替重複的曲式
  • 典型的輪旋曲式 :
  • A B A C A (small rondo)
  • A B A C A B A (large rondo)
  • Note the similarity to modern pop-music form
listening3

Chpt. 6-Rondo

Listening

String Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No. 4 (1798-1800)

by Ludwig van Beethoven

Fourth movement

Listening Guide: p. 214

Brief Set, CD 2:35

Note: Rondo form

A B A C A B A

chpt 7 symphony
Chpt. 7:古典交響曲Symphony
  • 一部龐大炫耀的作品,大約有二十分鐘到四十五分鐘的長度
  • 大致上是由四個樂章所組成
  • 1st Fast—1st樂章是快速度的奏鳴曲式
  • 2nd Slow—曲式大體上為奏鳴曲式、ABA三段式,或主題與變奏曲式
  • 3rd Dance—第三樂章,小步舞曲曲式或詼諧曲
  • 4th Fast—第四樂章,奏鳴曲式或輪旋奏鳴曲式
  • 樂章各自為一個獨立的樂曲,屬自己的主題
chpt 8 concerto
Chpt. 8:古典協奏曲Concerto
  • 器樂獨奏家與管絃樂團所寫的樂曲
  • 三個樂章組成 :
  • Fast—Slow—Fast (no Minuet )
  • 協奏曲中有一段獨奏者展現技巧的特別部分稱為Cadenza「花奏」
  • 通常用在第一樂章,或有時也在末樂章出現
  • Solo break where orchestra stops & waits
  • 古典時期獨奏者即興裝飾奏的段落
chpt 9 chamber music
Chpt. 9:古典室樂 Chamber Music
  • 由二至九人組成的小樂團演奏
  • 設計給在住家或宮廷音樂室,而非大廳
  • 每人各自演奏一個樂器
  • 常由業餘者演奏
  • 絃樂四重奏為室樂最重要的曲式
  • 為二把小提琴、一把中提琴,和一把大提琴
  • 包括四個樂章
    • Usually Fast—Slow—Dance—Fast
  • 其他常用的古典室樂曲有 :
  • 小提琴奏鳴曲(為小提琴與鋼琴)
  • 鋼琴三重奏(小提琴、大提琴與鋼琴)
  • 絃樂五重奏(二小提琴、二中提琴, 大提琴)
joseph haydn
Joseph Haydn(約瑟夫‧海頓 )
  • Talent recognized early
  • 1732-1809—early and mid-Classical Period Austrian composer (long life)
  • Age 8—sent to Vienna to be a choir boy
  • Dismissed from school—voice changed
  • Worked in Vienna and continued studies
  • 受雇至貴族艾斯特哈吉Esterhazy三十年
  • 身為一個技藝高超的家臣
  • Became famous in Europe at this time
  • Moved to Vienna at Prince’s death
  • Made concert trip to London
  • Prolific composer
listening4

Chpt. 10-Joseph Haydn

Listening

Trumpet Concerto in E Flat Major (1796) by Haydn

Third movement

Listening Guide: p. 226

Basic Set, CD 3:44

Note: Virtuoso trumpet part for soloist

Combination of sonata-allegro and

rondo forms called sonata-rondo

wolfgang mozart
Wolfgang Mozart 沃夫岡 莫札特
  • Austrian
  • 1756-1791 (mid-Classical composer)
  • Son of a professional musician
    • Leopold Mozart, violin, worked for Archbishop of Salzburg
  • Child prodigy
  • At 25—freelance musician in Vienna
  • Partly due to winning the Emperor’s favor
  • Initially successful, then novelty wore off
  • Final piece was a Requiem that was finished by one of his students
  • Very prolific, note short life span
  • Wrote in all Classical genres
listening5

Chpt. 11-Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Listening

Don Giovanni (1787) by Mozart

Act I: Introduction

Listening Guide: p. 231

Brief Set, CD 3:1

Don Giovanni has slipped into the room of Donna Anna. Leporello worriedly waits outside.

Donna Anna is not happy to see Don Giovanni.

Her father, the Commandant, catches him. They fight a duel and the Commandant is killed.

listening6

Chpt. 11-Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Listening

Don Giovanni (1787) by Mozart

Leporello’s catalog aria (Madamina)

Listening Guide: p. 236

Basic Set, CD 3:55

Donna Elvira, an earlier conquest of Don Giovanni’s, tries to see him again.

Leporello intercepts her and attempts to discourage her by reading a list, or catalog, of the women Don Giovanni has been with.

listening7

Chpt. 11-Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Listening

Symphony No. 40 in G Minor (1788)

by Mozart (K. 550)

Mvt. 1—Molto allegro

Listening Guide: p. 240 Brief Set, CD 2:17

Mvt. 2—Andante

Listening Guide: p. 242 Basic Set, CD 3:1

Mvt. 3—Menuetto (Allegretto)

Listening Guide: p. 243 Basic Set, CD 3:13

Mvt. 4—Allegro assai (very fast)

Listening Guide: p. 244 Basic Set, CD 3:16

listening8

Chpt. 11-Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Listening

Piano Concerto No. 23 in A Major (1786)

by Mozart (K. 488)

First movement

Listening Guide: p. 244

Brief Set, CD 3:5

Note: Sonata form

Cadenza near end of movement (one of

few notated by Mozart)

ludwig beethoven
Ludwig Beethoven魯德威貝多芬
  • Son of a professional musician
  • 1770-1827—late Classical, German
  • Father, Johann, was a singer & abusive alcoholic
  • Forced the boy to study music (wanted $)
  • Financially successful as freelance musician
  • Believed in period’s societal changes
  • Wrote final pieces while totally deaf
  • Died in Vienna
  • 20,000 people attended funeral
  • Wrote in all Classical genres
  • 9 symphonies
  • 16 string quartets
  • 5 concertos
  • 1 opera
  • Many other sonatas and other works
listening9

Chpt. 12-Ludwig van Beethoven

Listening

Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13

(Pathetique,1798)

by Beethoven

First movement (Grave-solemn, slow intro.)

Listening Guide: p. 261

Basic Set, CD 4:8

Note: Extreme dynamic contrasts & accents

Unexpected pauses

More use of dissonance than previous

composers

listening10

Chpt. 12-Ludwig van Beethoven

Listening

Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67

by Beethoven (1808)

Mvt. 1—Allegro con brio

Listening Guide: p. 261 Brief Set, CD 2:39

Mvt. 2—Andante con moto

Listening Guide: p. 263 Brief Set, CD 2:47

Mvt. 3—Allegro (scherzo)

Listening Guide: p. 265 Brief Set, CD 2:53

Mvt. 4—Allegro

Listening Guide: p. 266 Brief Set, CD 2:57