I. The New Order in Europe • Nazi-occupied Europe was organized in two ways: • 1. Lands annexed by Nazi Germany and made into German provinces • 2. Run by German military or civilian officials with help from local people who were willing to collaborate with the Nazis
A. Resettlement in the East • Living space for German expansion • Racial program put into place in Poland • Aryan vs. Slavic people • Heinrich Himmler, leader of the SS, in charge of resettlement plans in the East
A. Resettlement in the East • Poles uprooted, ethnic Germans brought in to colonize Poland • Slavic people became slave labor
B. Slave Labor in Germany • Labor shortages • 7 million forced into slave labor • Problems: • 1. disrupted industrial production • 2. brutal ness of the system
II. The Holocaust • Deliberate attempt to exterminate the Jews • Racial struggle between the Aryans and the Jews • Final Solution, Nazis plan to exterminate the Jews • genocide, physical extermination
A. The Einsatzgruppen • Reinhard Heydrich, head of the SS’s Security Service, administered the Final Solution • Einsatzgruppen, special strike forces to carry out plan • Jews in Poland rounded up and put into ghettos
A. The Einsatzgruppen • Conditions in the ghettos were horrible (crowded, unsanitary housing, food shortages) • Some organized resistance • Einsatzgruppen were organized into mobile killing units (death squads)
A. The Einsatzgruppen • Round up Jews, execute them and bury them in mass graves • Killed about a million Jews
Mass Grave http://hsgm.free.fr/recent/auschwitz.jpg
B. The Death Camps • Einsatzgruppen was too slow • The Nazis built special death camps • Jews rounded up, put on freight trains and shipped to six extermination centers • The largest was Auschwitz
B. The Death Camps • 30% were sent to labor camps where they were starved and worked to death • The remainder went to the gas chambers • Some inmates were subjected to medical experiments
C. The Death Toll • 5 to 6 million Jews • 2 out 3 of every European Jew • 9 to 10 million non-Jewish people (Roma or Gypsies) • Leading citizens of the Slavic people were arrested and killed
C. The Death Toll • 3 to 4 million Soviet prisoners of war • Mass slaughter of European Jews is known as the Holocaust • Some people resisted, some chose not to believe the accounts of death • Collaborators, people who assisted the enemy)
D. Children in the War • Children were unable to work, so mothers and children were gassed first • Jewish males learned to look older • 1.2 million Jewish children died in the Holocaust • Some children were evacuated to the countryside • 13 million orphaned
D. Children in the War • Last years of the war Hitler Youth members often 14 or 15 could be found on the front lines
III. The New Order in Asia • Defensive occupation • Growing need for raw materials • Outlet for manufactured goods • “Greater East-Asia Co-prosperity Sphere”
A. Japanese Policies • Local gov’t would be est. under Japanese control • Power rested w/ Japanese military authorities in each territory • Economic resources were used for the benefit of the Japanese war machine • Native peoples served in local military units or were forced to work on public works projects
A. Japanese Policies • Severe hardships • Forcibly took rice and shipped it abroad • Food shortage
B. Japanese Behavior • Arrogance and contempt for local customs • Little respect for the lives of their subjects • China, 1937, several days of killing, raping and looting “the Rape of Nanjing” • Korean people forced to labor
B. Japanese Behavior • Labor forces both prisoners of war and local people • 12,000 Allied prisoners of war • Ho Chi Minh’s Communist Party provided information of Japanese troop movements
I. The Mobilization of Peoples: Four Examples • Even more than World War I, World War II was a total war. • Economic mobilization (the act of assembling and preparing for war) was more extensive. • The number of civilians killed – almost 20 million – was far higher.
A. The Soviet Union • The Soviet city of Leningrad experienced 900 hundred days of siege. • Women and girls worked in industries and mines & railroads. • Soviet women served as snipers and also in aircrews of bomber squadrons.
B. The United States • The United States was not fighting the war in its own territory. • The United States produced much of the military equipment the Allies needed. • The construction of new factories created boomtowns. Thousands came there to work but then faced a shortage of houses and schools.
B. The United States • 16 million men and women enrolled in the military and another 16 million went looking for jobs. • The presence of African Americans in areas where they had not lived before led to racial tensions and sometimes even racial riots.
B. The United States • 1 million African Americans enrolled in the military. There they were segregated in their own battle units. • On the west coast, Japanese Americans were moved to camps surrounded by barbed wire and required to take loyalty oaths. • Public officials claimed the policy was necessary for security reasons.
C. Germany • To maintain the morale of the home front, Hitler refused to cut consumer goods production or to increase the production of armaments. • Hitler’s architect, Albert Speer was made minister for armaments and munitions in 1942. • A total mobilization of the Germany economy was put into effect in July 1944. • Many German women, especially those of the middle class, did not want jobs, particularly in factories.
D. Japan • In Japan, traditional habits of obedience and hierarchy were used to encourage citizens to sacrifice their resources and sometimes their lives, for the national cause. • Young Japanese were encouraged to volunteer to serve as pilots in suicide missions against the U.S. fighting ships at sea. These pilots were known as kamikaze, or “divine wind”.
D. Japan • Japan was extremely reluctant to mobilize women on behalf of Japan’s war effort. • Instead of using women to meet labor shortages, the Japanese government brought in Korean and Chinese laborers.
II. Frontline Civilians: The Bombing of Cities • The bombing of civilians in World War II made the home front a dangerous place. • The bombing of civilian populations would be an effective way to force governments to make peace.
A. Britain • Beginning in 1940, the German air force bombed London nightly. • The blitz, as the British called the German air raids, soon became a national experience.
B. Germany • Major bombing raids on Germany cities began in 1942. • The ferocious bombing of Dresden created a firestorm that may have killed thousands. • It is highly unlikely that Allied bombing sapped the morale or the German people or destroyed Germany’s industrial capacity. • The widespread destruction of transportation systems and fuel supplies made it extremely difficult for the new materials to reach the German military.
C. Japan • Fearing high U.S. casualties in a land invasion of Japan, President Truman and his advisers decided to drop the Atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of 1945.
III. Peace & a New War • The total victory of the Allies in World War II was followed not by a real peace but by a period of political tensions, known as the Cold War. • Primarily an ideological conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union the Cold War was to dominate world affairs until the end of the 1980’s.
A. The Tehran Conference • Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill leaders of the Big Three met in Tehran in November 1943. • Stalin and Roosevelt had argued successfully for an American-British invasion through France. • It meant that Soviet and British-American forces would meet in defeated Germany along a north - south dividing line.
B. The Yalta Conference • The Big Three powers met again in Yalta in southern Russia in February 1945. • Stalin wanted a buffer to protect the Soviet Union from possible future Western aggression. • Roosevelt favored the idea of self-determination in Europe. This involved a pledge to help liberated Europe in the creation of “democratic institutions of their own choice”. • At Yalta, Roosevelt sought Soviet military help against Japan.
B. The Yalta Conference • The creation of the United Nations was a major American concern at Yalta. • Germany would be divided into 4 zones, which would be occupied & governed by the military forces of the Allies. • The issue of free elections in Eastern Europe caused a serious split between the Soviets and the Americans.
C. The Potsdam Conference • The Potsdam conference began under a cloud of mistrust. Roosevelt had died in April 12, 1945 and had been succeeded as president by Harry S. Truman. • Truman demanded free elections throughout Eastern Europe. • Free elections might result in governments hostile to the Soviets.