Geography of Egypt: Locations • Egypt Luxor Suez Canal • Israel Memphis Lake Nasser • Saudi Arabia Thebes Aswan Dam • Lower Egypt Rosetta Red Sea • Upper Egypt *Cairo Nile • Nile Delta Alexandria Gulf of Suez • Libya Giza Mediterranean Sea • Jordan Karnak *Jerusalem • Sudan Sinai Valley of the Kings
Suez Kuwait Yemen • Mecca Kuwait City Gulf of Aden • Syria Persian Gulf Valley of Queens • *Damascus Qatar • Tigris U.A.E • Mesopotamia Gulf of Oman • Euphrates Oman • *Baghdad *Tehran • Iraq Iran • Lebanon Arabian Sea
Ancient Egypt • Where is Egypt located? Northeastern Africa along Nile Valley • Why was Egypt called “The Gift of the Nile”? longest river in the world – 4,200 miles The banks of the Nile overflowed hence, making the land fertile Trade • What was the “Nileometer” ? Used to measure the height of the Nile to control flooding
Ancient Egypt Continued • What discovery opened the way for the study of the Egyptian history? Rosetta Stone • What was Rosetta Stone? Is a Basalt Slab inscribed by priest in hieroglyphics 1799 Napoleon troops found it and Jean Champollion translated the stone
Readings: Human Heritage • Delta: • a fan-shaped area of fertile land • Cataracts: • Physical borders- desert, sea, waterfalls • Shadoof- • a machine to lift water from the Nile to the basins
Uniting Upper and Lower Egypt • Who unified Egypt? Narmer • Three Major Periods in Egyptian history 1. Old Kingdom / Age of Pyramid 2. Middle Kingdom / Age of the Nobles 3. New Kingdom / Age of the Empire
Old Kingdom • What are the three seasons in Egypt? 1.Flooding 2.Coming Forth 3.Harvest During the Old Kingdom, Egyptian rulers acquired extensive power.
Theories of building a pyramid • Research • Site • Giza • Blueprint • Imhotep
Theories cont. • Workers are assembled • After the Harvest • Paid: food, clothes • Tools • Site is cleared
Theories: cont. • Stones are made at the quarries and moved to the site • Across the Nile River • Limestone: stone cutters • Stones are placed • Sleds/ rollers
Theories cont. • Capstone is raised • Gold • Start to dismantle the ramps and polish stones • Pyramid is built • 40 stories, 23 years, 2 million stones: Khufu’s
Three theories to building pyramids 1. Single ramp system 2. Wrap around ramp system 3. Combinations of the single and wrap around ramp system
Movie: Pyramids • Who was Osiris? - Reign over King of the dead -Isis was his wife - Killed by Seth • Who was Ma’at? - Harmony in society - Idea of the Universe in perfect harmony • Who was Kafre? - Believed to be Sphinx - Son of Khufu
Pyramid Con. • Who was Khufu? - Pharaoh of Egypt - Great pyramid at Giza built for him - Cartouche - Oval around Pharaohs name • What was ka? - Soul - Spiritual part
Procedures of Mummification • Mummification- process of preserving the body • Natron- dehydrated the body • Canopic Jars- containers for organs • Resin- preserved the bandages • Sarcophagus- coffins • KA- soul • BA- body • Kafre- son of Khufu- sphinx
Old Kingdom Quiz: TERMS • Egypt KA Resin • Nileometer BA Kafre • Narmer Imhotep canopic jars • Herodotus Pyramid Theory Osiris • Rosetta Stone Dynasty • Young Pharaoh • Hieroglyphics Cartouche • Ma’at Mummification • Khufu Natron
Reasons for the decline of the Old Kingdom • 1. Heavy Taxes • 2. People lose loyalty to the Pharaohs • 3. Civil Wars • MIDDLE KINGDOM or AGE OF THE NOBLES • Gov’t officials take over • Pharaohs lose power • The start of the Valley of the Kings • Hyksos invade Egypt
New Kingdom or Age of the Empire • Ahmose • Hatshepsut • Thutmose III • Amenhotep IV • Tutankhamon • Ramses II
New Kingdom: • Hatshepsut: She built obelisks and a magnificent tomb. She was interested in trade. She was one of the first women rulers in history. She was known as the bearded queen. Egypt grew rich during her reign. • Thutmose III He was referred to as the Napoleon of Egypt. He conquered Palestine, Syria and Phoenicia. He created the largest empire Egypt has ever seen. He was buried at the Valley of the Kings. There is some confusion on the defacing of Hatshepsut’s tombs.
New Kingdom: • Amenhotep IV- He wanted to return all power back to the Pharaoh’s. He fired all temple workers and closed the temples. He changed the religion of Egypt to Monotheism. The worship of Aton. He changes his name to Akhenaton. • Tutankhamon- He became the Pharaoh at the age of 9. He was forced to return Egypt to Polytheism and open the temples. His tomb was discovered by Howard Carter. The dig was paid by Lord Carnarvon. The tomb was discovered in the Valley of the Kings. ( Mummies Curse)
Mummies Curse • Over the door to King Tut's tomb was an inscription that read "Death shall come on swift wings to him that toucheth the tomb of the Pharaoh."
New Kingdom: • Ramses II- He was known for building monuments. He fought against the Hittites. They signed the first written treaty in history. He was the Pharaoh when Moses led the Exodus. He is the best preserved mummy.
Review Sheets • Where is Egypt? – Northeastern Africa • Who called Egypt the “Gift of the Nile”? Why? Herodotus – father of history – one of the first to record history • What are the three Seasons? Flooding, Coming forth, harvest • Nileometer – Use to measure the height of the Nile • Rosetta Stone – Three writing system *Greek *Demonic *Hieroglyphics; Thomas Young; Jean Champollion; Discovered by Napoleon Troops
Narmer- unified upper and lower Egypt • Three Historical periods- Old Kingdom or Age of Pyramid, Middle Kingdom or Age of Nobles, and New Kingdom or Age of Empire • Hieroglyphics- picture writings • Papyrus- paper • Pharaoh- “great house” • Mummification- process of preserving the body • Theories of building the pyramids- 1. single ramp 2. wrap around 3. combination of the two • Valley of the Kings- tombs in Upper Egypt • Hyksos- invaded Egypt using chariots • Ka- soul • Ba- body
Ma’at- harmony in society • What was the purpose of jewelry? Protection • Cartouche- oval around Pharaoh’s name • Hatshepsut- Bearded queen • Thutmose III- Napoleon of Egypt • Amenhotep IV- Changed the religion to Monotheism • Tutankhamen- Boy King, Howard Carter • Ramses II- First Treaty, Moses/Exodus
Location of Egypt: Hyksos: Dynasty: • Herodotus: Ka: Monarchy: • Three Seasons: Ba: Cheops: • Nileometer: Ma’at: Canpoic: • Rosetta Stone: Purpose of jewelry: • Narmer: Cartouche: • Three Periods in Egyptian History: Ahmose: • Hieroglyphics: Hatshepsut: • Papyrus: Thutmose III • Pharaoh: Amenhotep IV • Mummufication: Tutankhamon • Natron: Ramses II • Resin: Shadoof • Theories of building pyramids: Imhotep • Valley of the Kings: Re