Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Nile Valley Section 2 Egypt’s Old Kingdom Section 3 The Egyptian Empire Section 4 The Civilization of Kush Reading Review Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Ancient Egypt Chapter Objectives • Describe how the Nile River influenced Egyptian civilization and the reasons a united government arose along its banks. • Discuss government and religion during the Old Kingdom. • Analyze the accomplishments of the Middle and New Kingdoms. • Describe the Nubian kingdom south of Egypt.
The Nile Valley Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section traces the emergence of the Egyptian civilization along the banks of the Nile River and the steps taken to create one united kingdom.
The Nile Valley Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • The Egyptian civilization began in the fertile Nile River valley, where natural barriers discouraged invasions. • The Egyptians depended on the Nile’s floods to grow their crops. • Around 3100 B.C., Egypt’s two major kingdoms, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, were combined into one.
The Nile Valley Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas (cont.) • The Egyptian civilization began in the fertile Nile River valley, where natural barriers discouraged invasions. Locating Places • Egpyt (EE·jihpt) • Nile River (NYL) • Sahara (suh·HAR·uh)
The Nile Valley Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People • Narmer (NAR·muhr) Building Your Vocabulary • cataract (KA·tuh·RAKT) • delta (DEHL·tuh) • papyrus (puh·PY·ruhs) • hieroglyphics (HY·ruh·GLIH·fihks) • dynasty (DY·nuh·stee)
The Nile Valley Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing Information Create a diagram like the one on page 38 of your textbook to describe Egyptians’ irrigation systems.
The Nile Valley Settling the Nile • The earliest Egyptians moved into the Nile River valley from less fertile areas. • They farmed and built villages along the riverbanks. • TheNile Riveris the longest river in the world, about 4,000 miles long. • Egyptians used the Nile Riverfor many things. (pages 39–40)
The Nile Valley Settling the Nile (cont.) • They used river water to drink, clean, farm, and cook. • They ate fish from the river. • TheNile valley is a narrow, green valley in Egypt. • The northern end of the valley is a fertile area of land called a delta. (pages 39–40)
The Nile Valley Settling the Nile (cont.) • The Sahara, the largest desert in the world, lies west of the Nile Valley. • The Eastern Desert lies to the east of the valley. • Egypt has several natural borders to protect it. • The deserts, the dangerous rapids of the Nile, and marshes in the delta kept enemies from entering Egypt. (pages 39–40)
The Nile Valley Settling the Nile (cont.) • The Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the east allowed trade with other peoples. • Within Egypt, people traveled on the Nile to trade with each other. (pages 39–40)
The Nile Valley How did natural protection help Egypt? Enemies had difficulty attacking the country. Keeping people safe helped the Egyptian population grow.
The Nile Valley The River People • Floods along the Nile were predictable and were not devastating. • Each spring the Nile would flood and leave a dark, fertile mud along its banks. • Farmers learned about the waters of the Nile. • They used the soil left behind by the floods to grow wheat, barley, and flax seeds. (pages 41–42)
The Nile Valley The River People (cont.) • Farmers learned about irrigation. • They dug basins to trap floodwaters, dug canals to channel water to the fields, and built dikes to strengthen the basin walls. • Papyrus, a reed plant that grew along the Nile, was used to make baskets, sandals, and river rafts. • Later, it was used to make paper. (pages 41–42)
The Nile Valley The River People (cont.) • The Egyptian system of writing was called hieroglyphics. • This system consisted of thousands of picture symbols. • Some Egyptian men learned to read and write. • They attended schools to learn to be scribes. (pages 41–42)
The Nile Valley Why might scribes be important to Egyptian civilization? Rulers and other people in power, such as priests and priestesses, needed scribes for record keeping. Few people could go to school to be scribes, so there were not many people the rulers could hire to work as scribes.
The Nile Valley A United Egypt • Because the people in Egypt had surplus food, some people became artisans instead of farmers. • Artisans wove cloth, made pottery, carved statues, and crafted weapons and tools. • Egyptians traded with each other and with others in Mesopotamia. • A few strong chiefs united groups of villages into kingdoms. (pages 43–44)
The Nile Valley A United Egypt (cont.) • Eventually, the strongest kingdoms overpowered the weaker ones. • In this way, two large kingdoms emerged—Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. • Narmer united the two kingdoms. • He ruled from the city of Memphis, and his kingdom lasted long after his death. (pages 43–44)
The Nile Valley A United Egypt (cont.) • Narmer’s descendants passed the ruling power on from father to son to grandson, forming a dynasty. • Ancient Egypt was ruled by 31 dynasties that historians have grouped into three time periods—Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom. (pages 43–44)
The Nile Valley In what ways was ancient Egypt like Mesopotamia? Both had access to powerful rivers, economies based on farming and trade, government to help the people, artisans to create products, and technological advances.
The Nile Valley Early Egyptian Life • Ancient Egypt had social classes. • The pharaoh was the highest power. • The upper class consisted of nobles, priests, and government officials. • The middle class included merchants, artisans, shopkeepers, and scribes. • Farmers were the largest group of people and were in a lower class than the middle class. (pages 45–46)
The Nile Valley Early Egyptian Life (cont.) • Unskilled workers were the lowest class of people in ancient Egypt. (pages 45–46)
The Nile Valley Early Egyptian Life (cont.) • Although men were the heads of households, women had more rights in Egypt than in other ancient civilizations. • They could own and pass on property, buy and sell goods, make wills, and obtain divorces. (pages 45–46)
The Nile Valley Early Egyptian Life (cont.) • Few children went to school in ancient Egypt. • Children had time to play games and had toys. • Egyptian girls learned to sew, cook, and run a household. • Boys learned farming or a skilled trade. (pages 45–46)
The Nile Valley How are U.S. children today like children of ancient Egypt? How are they different? Both can play with toys and games. However, all children are required by law to go to school in the United States. In ancient Egypt, few children went to school. Also, U.S. girls today can learn farming or a trade skill, and boys can learn to sew and cook.
The Nile Valley What is papyrus and how did the Egyptians use it? It is a reed plant that was used to make baskets, sandals, river rafts, and paper.
The Nile Valley What rights did women have in ancient Egypt? Women could own and pass on property, buy and sell goods, make wills, obtain divorces, and take part in religious ceremonies.
The Nile Valley Geography Skills How did the geography of the Nile River valley lead to the growth of a civilization there? The Nile River valley had natural barriers for protection, enriched soil for farming, and the river and seas for trade.
The Nile Valley Describe Describe the Egyptian writing system. Picture symbols, called hieroglyphics, stood for objects, ideas, and sounds.
The Nile Valley Analyze What was the significance of Narmer’s double crown? It symbolized the unity of Upper and Lower Egypt.
The Nile Valley Explain what the “gift of the Nile” means.
Egypt’s Old Kingdom Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section discusses government, religion, and ways of life during the Old Kingdom.
Egypt’s Old Kingdom Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • Egypt was ruled by all-powerful pharaohs. • The Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses and in life after death for the pharaohs. • The Egyptians of the Old Kingdom built huge stone pyramids as tombs for their pharaohs.
Egypt’s Old Kingdom Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Giza (GEE·zuh) Meeting People • King Khufu (KOO·foo)
Egypt’s Old Kingdom Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • pharaoh (FEHR·oh) • deity (DEE·uh·tee) • embalming (ihm·BAHM·ihng) • mummy (MUH·mee) • pyramid (PIHR·uh·MIHD)
Egypt’s Old Kingdom Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing Information Use a graphic organizer like the one on page 47 of your textbook to identify the different beliefs in Egypt’s religion.
Egypt’s Old Kingdom Old Kingdom Rulers • The Old Kingdom lasted from about 2600 B.C. until about 2300 B.C. • Pharaohs were all-powerful Egyptian kings who guided every activity in Egypt. • Pharaohs appointed officials to carry out their commands. • Egyptian people served pharaohs because they believed the kingdom depended on one strong leader. (page 48)
Egypt’s Old Kingdom Old Kingdom Rulers (cont.) • They also believed the pharaohs were the sons of Re, the sun god. • The thought pharaohs were gods on earth. (page 48)
Egypt’s Old Kingdom How did people show respect to pharaohs? People bowed down or touched their heads to the ground and played music when the pharaoh appeared in public.
Egypt’s Old Kingdom Egypt’s Religion • Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses, or deities. • These deities controlled every human activity and all natural forces. • The major god was Re, the sun god. • Another major god was Hapi, who ruled the Nile River. • Isis was the most important goddess. (pages 49–50)
Egypt’s Old Kingdom Egypt’s Religion (cont.) • Egyptians believed in life after death. • The Book of the Dead contained a collections of spells that Egyptians believed they needed to enter the afterlife. • Egyptians believed only pharaohs and a few elite people could have life after death. (pages 49–50)
Egypt’s Old Kingdom Egypt’s Religion (cont.) • To protect the pharaoh’s body after death, Egyptians developed an embalming process. • During the process, the body’s organs were removed. • The body was treated with spices and oils and then wrapped with strips of linen. (pages 49–50)
Egypt’s Old Kingdom Egypt’s Religion (cont.) • The wrapped body was called a mummy. • Egyptian doctors used herbs and drugs to treat illnesses. • They also set broken bones and stitched cuts. • Egyptian doctors were the first doctors to specialize in different areas of medicine, and they wrote the world’s first medical book. (pages 49–50)
Egypt’s Old Kingdom Why was it important for pharaohs to reach the afterlife? Egyptians believed pharaohs would continue to care for Egypt once they reached the afterlife.
Egypt’s Old Kingdom The Pyramids • Egyptians built pyramids to protect the bodies of dead pharaohs. • The pyramids also contained items the pharaohs might need in the afterlife. • A pyramid took thousands of people and years of labor to build. (pages 50–52)
Egypt’s Old Kingdom The Pyramids (cont.) • Egyptians used astronomy and mathematics to create the pyramids. • To build a pyramid, Egyptians first selected a site. • Then, they searched for stone. • The artisans cut the stone into blocks, and other workers tied the stone to sleds and pulled them to the Nile. (pages 50–52)