It originated on the Arabian Peninsula. What is the geography of the Arabian Peninsula? Much of the peninsula is desert – hot and dry. The only fertile land is along The coastline. How did the people Of the Arabian Peninsula adapt to this environment? Will they become farmers?
No –littlegrows in the desert because There is no water. Except for an Oasis here and there. Which means that the People were not farmers. They were nomads- What is a nomad? Someone who does not stay in one place- nomads wander. These Bedouin nomads lived in clans or groups of people related to acommon ancestor. Several clans were part of a tribe. Bedouin nomads traded among clans, met at Oases and traded goods. There were often clan rivalries Which led to feuds.
Camels were essential to the Bedouins. The clans had to cooperate in order to survive. They had to share fresh water at Oases and trade grains and other foods.
The religion of these tribes was Idol worship, which was a form Of polytheism….. until Muhammad founded Islam. These tribes would go to the Kaaba in Mecca and worship idols that Had been left there. So Mecca was an important religious center even before Muhammad was born. The Kaaba means cubed shaped building In Arabic. Muslims believe the Kaaba was originally built by Abraham. It is believed that Abraham, the father of the Hebrews, was also the father of Ishmael of whom Muslims are descended from.
Muhammad was born around 570 AD in Mecca. As a young man he became a trader And would often pray. Muslims believe that as he was praying in a cave one day, The angel Gabriel came and spoke to him. Gabriel delivered a message from God. He told Muhammad that there was only one god, Allah. What do we call a religion that worships only one god? Monotheistic Cave Hira near Mecca
Muhammad told everyone about his visit from Gabriel. Muslims call it a “revelation” meaning that Allah revealed himself to Muhammad. (This revelation Is celebrated today during the holy month of Ramadan.) The traders of Mecca rejected Muhammad’s story and drove him away.They were afraid that traders would stop coming to Mecca to worship the idols. When the traders came, they traded which made the Meccans wealthy. The Meccans were afraid that people would believe Muhammad and stop coming to Mecca to the Kaaba. Muhammad fled to the city of Medina where he gained followers. (This is called the Hijrah and marks the first day of the Muslim calendar.) He and his followers returned to Mecca, battled the Meccans and won.
Muhammad was the founder of Islam. The Quran (Koran) is the holy book of Islam. Muslims are worshipers of Islam. Muslim means one who has submitted to God. Muslims worship in a Mosque. The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is where Muhammad is believed to have ascended into heaven where he met Allah and other prophets
There are five things that Muslims must do to be faithful to their God. These are called the Five Pillars of Islam Faith in God (Allah), prayer 5 times a day facing Mecca, fasting during Ramadan, giving to charity and making apilgrimmageto Mecca once in a lifetime.
Muslims believe that Jesus, Abraham and Moses were prophets even though they are Christian and Hebrew leaders. Prophets are people whom God has spoken to. Muslims believe that God spoke to Jesus, Abraham and Moses but that Muhammad was the last person that God spoke to. Language of Islam: Arabic Muslims do not believe in showing living things in art: Therefore they use Calligraphy
After Muhammad died, many Bedouin tribes in Arabia rejected Islam. Muslims fought these tribes and won. Islam became an empire as well as a religion. Islam was led by a Caliph or leader who was elected. What other areas became part of the Islamic Empire? Muslims tried to expand into France but were defeated at the Battle of Tours (just north of the Spanish border) in 732
Islam spread through trade Traders used the Arabic Language to trade which led to many people to convert to Islam
The Islamic Empire spread north and east because the Persians and the Byzantine Empires had weakened following years of fighting each other. As Muslims conquered, Christians and Jews (people of the book) were not forced to convert to Islam because this is forbidden in the Quran. They were required to pay a tax and were restricted from spreading their religion.
After Muhammad died, many Muslims believed that Islam should be led by a relative of Muhammad. These Muslims eventually split and formed their own branch of Islam. Today they are called Shias or Shiites. Muslims who believe that Islam should be led by a person who has been elected by the religions leaders are called Sunnis. Sunni Muslims Have a majority while Shiite Muslims are a minority within Islam. Sunni Shia
Muslim Achievements • Arabic numbers which we use today • Algebra • Medicine • Expansion of Geography Knowledge • Astrolabe • Universities and education • Arabic Alphabet • Architecture • Translated Greek texts into Arabic
1. What does “Islam” mean in Arabic? a. “one who has submitted” b. “there is no god but Allah” c. “Submission to the will of Allah” d. “Muhammad is the messenger of Allah” 2, What do Muslims believe about Muhammad? a. He was the last and greatest of the prophets b. He was the only son of the one true God, Allah c. He was the first and only prophet of Allah d. He was a combination of god and man 3. What division of Islam believes that only a relative of Muhammad is qualified to be a caliph? a. Sufi b. Shi’a c. Sunni d. Fatimid
Which of the following is NOT one of the Five Pillars of Islam? • a. faith • b. prayer • c. fasting • d. military duty • 5. Which of the following was NOT an advancement during the Muslim empire? • a. optics • b. mathematics • c. medicine • d. portraiture • 6. How were conquered peoples treated by the Muslim Empire? • a. They were forced to give up their religions and convert to Islam • b. Their religions were tolerated, but restrictions and taxes were imposed • c. They were treated as equal citizens with Muslims • d. They were allowed to become first-class citizens upon converting to Islam
7. Why was Baghdad’s House of Wisdom significant? • a. It was a seat of learning for the Umayyad dynasty • b. People translated scientific and philosophical texts into Arabic • c. It is the place where Christians could worship freely • d. It was where the Quran was translated into ten other languages • 8. What contributed to calligraphy’s popularity? • a. Muslim law prohibited the drawing of living beings • b. Artists wanted beautiful works to surround pictures of the Prophet • c. Rumiwanted his poetry to appear in a visually appealing form • d. A copy of The Thousand and One nights inspired people to study calligraphy.
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