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The Rise of Islam

The Rise of Islam . Ms. Jerome Chapter 11. Spread of Islam from inception to present. The Birthplace of a New World Religion. Islam arose in the Arabian peninsula Extremely tribal—religious melting pot Reflected the social and cultural conditions of its homeland

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The Rise of Islam

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  1. The Rise of Islam Ms. Jerome Chapter 11

  2. Spread of Islam from inception to present

  3. The Birthplace of a New World Religion • Islam arose in the Arabian peninsula • Extremely tribal—religious melting pot • Reflected the social and cultural conditions of its homeland • The epicenter of post classical long distance trade. • Arabia—important link in trade between China and India in the east and Persia nad Byzantium in the west

  4. Muhammad and His Message • Muhammad born 570 –merchant family in Mecca • By 30 Muhammad had established himself as a merchant • Arabian Peninsula was diverse—polytheism, Judaism etc. • Age 40- spiritual transformation. • Experienced visions understood as revelations from Allah – archangel Gabriel • Believed in one true God

  5. Quran • Muslims compiled the versions of Muhammad’s revelations in the Quran “recitation” • It is the authority of Muslim religious doctrine • Allah the same omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent and exclusive deity as the Jews’ Yahweh and Christians’ God

  6. Muhammad’s Migration to Medina • Conflict with ruling elite in Mecca • Allah as only divine power challenged the common polytheism • Muhammad also denounced greed as a moral wickedness and idolatry • 622 under mounting pressure, Muhammad fled to Yathrib later called Medina “the city of the prophet” • Hirja- the migration to Medina is the starting point on Islamic calendar

  7. Islam in Arabia • 629 Muhammad wished to return to Mecca • In 630 with followers attacked mecca and conquered the city • Imposed a government dedicated to Allah • Destroyed pagan shrines-replaced with mosques • Through multiple campaigns, by 632 (Muhammad’s death) most of Arabia under Islamic control

  8. 5 Pillars • 1. Allah the only god and Muhammad as prophet • 2. Pray to Allah daily facing Mecca • 3. Observe a fast during the daylight hours during Ramadan • 4. Contribution of alms for the weak and poor • 5. To honor Muhammad’s visit to Mecca in 629, must undertake the hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca

  9. Jihad “struggle” • Spiritual and moral obligation on Muslims-to conquer vice and evil • Muslims to struggle against ignorance and unbelief by spreading the word of Islam and seeking conversions • The obligation to take the sword and wage war against unbelievers who threaten Islam

  10. Sharia • Islamic Holy Law • Emerged after Muhammad • Detailed guidance on proper behavior in almost every aspect of life • From marriage and family life to slavery, inheritance, business and commercial relationship • Islam—not just a religion, a way of life

  11. Expansion of Islam • NO provision for a successor • Advisors selected Abu Bakr –Muhammad’s father in law—“caliph” (deputy) Sunni. • Many people wanted Ali—Muhammad’s son in law to be leader. Shia • A Lieutenant of Muhammad, not a prophet himself • Abu Bakr became head of state for the Islamic community and umma (community of the faithful) • Went on the offensive and claimed much of the region to accept Islam

  12. Abu Bakr (Sunni) Ali (Shia)

  13. Divided Islam • Struggle to name successors intensified • Sunni and Shia Sects emerged • Sunni Muslims: caliphs were rightful political and military leaders, chosen by the Islamic community (Abu Bakr a rightly guided Caliph) • Shia Muslims: leaders should be blood relatives of Muhammad, descended from Ali and his son Husayn (cousin and son in law of Muhammad) • Ali served as Caliph from 656-661; assassinated along with much of his family line

  14. Expanding Islam • Between 633-637, Muslim forces seized Byzantine Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, North Africa • In 711 conquered northern India • Between 711 and 718 crossed Strait of Gibraltar and conquered Iberian peninsula.

  15. Umayyad Dynasty • Post assassination of Ali from 661-750 • Sunni sect • Temporarily solved problem of succession • Umayyads ranked among most prominent of the Meccan merchant clans • Moved capital to Damascusin Syria—central location • Believed in Arab military aristocracy

  16. Umayyad Dynasty

  17. Policy Toward Conquered People • Conquered Jews, Christians, Persians, Indians, Greeks, Mesopotamians etc. • Allowed them to view own religious practices • Imposed a jizya—tax on non Muslims • Umayyads favored the Arab elites—caused resentment

  18. Decline of Umayyad • Caliphs became alienated form other Arabs • Too devoted to luxurious living than leadership of the umma • Fierce resistance of Shia and conquered peoples

  19. Abbasid Dynasty • Founder: Abu al-Abbas • Leader of Persian rebellion vs. Umayyyad Dynasty • Descendent of Muhammad’s uncle • He was Sunni he allied with Shias and with non Arab Muslims • Seized control of Persia and Mesopotamia –shattered Umayyad forces in huge battle • Founded Abbasid Dynasty

  20. Abbasid Dynasty • No special favor to Arabs • Persians, Egyptians, Mesopotamians and others rose in wealth and power • Adopted Persian governmental practices—introduced governors to rule • Not a conquering dynasty • Did not expand through conquest • Dar al Islam (the community of Islam) expanded but not by the Abbasid dynasty • Merchants, others expanded it

  21. Baghdad • Central authority (capital Iraq) • Became center of banking, commerce, crafts, industry, population

  22. Abbasid Decline • Civil War damaged Abbasid authority • Disputes over succession became problem • Provincial governors took advantage of disorder • Abbasids became figureheads • The dynasty would be extinguished at the hands of the Mongols in 1258

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