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Cadet Phase I & II Aerospace Dimensions Spacecraft (Module 6). Session 1: Chapter 1 ‘Unmanned Spacecraft’ Session 2: Chapter 2 ‘Manned Spacecraft’ Session 3: Chapter 3 ‘Living and Working in Space’.

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cadet phase i ii aerospace dimensions spacecraft module 6

Cadet Phase I & IIAerospace DimensionsSpacecraft (Module 6)

Session 1:

Chapter 1 ‘Unmanned Spacecraft’

Session 2:

Chapter 2 ‘Manned Spacecraft’

Session 3:

Chapter 3 ‘Living and Working in Space’

(ONLY for all Cadets that have not yet passed corresponding AE test, and Cadet Mentors)

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing

unmanned spacecraft
Unmanned Spacecraft
  • Satellites - An object that orbits around another
    • Artificial Satellites - man-made device that orbits around the Earth (or other body)
      • 1st Artificial Satellite was the Russian ‘Sputnik’
      • Several possible uses, such as communications, imaging, navigation, as selected by the user
      • COMSATs - Communications Satellite, receive, amplify, remove errors and re-broadcast communications signals (e.g. TV Telephone) from one point on the Earth to another
        • Telstar 1 was the world’s first commercial communications satellite
  • INTELSAT - International Network of 109 nations with 16 Satellites used for Voice and Television communications
  • Deep Space Network (DSN) - 3 NASA Satellites dedicated to providing communications service to Deep Space Probes

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing

unmanned spacecraft3
Unmanned Spacecraft
  • NAVSTAR, GPS - Global Positioning System
    • Constellation of Military/Civilian Satellites that provide for an accurate position fix anywhere on the Earth’s surface with a GPS receiver
    • Forerunner was ‘Transit’ which provided position information for Polaris Missiles
  • LANDSAT - Imaging Satellites that are used to monitor the Earth’s surface (Natural Resource Satellites)
    • Primarily used for Environmental Monitoring, e.g. Crops or Urban Development
    • Closely related are Weather Satellites which monitor Earth’s atmosphere, e.g. Tiros and GOES
  • Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO)
    • Special NASA Satellite dedicated to observing the Sun, Visually, X-Ray, Ultraviolet and Gamma Rays

LANDSAT

GOES

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing

unmanned spacecraft4
Unmanned Spacecraft
  • Space Probes - Similar to Satellites, but intended to travel between Planets, sometimes fly-by or enter orbit, and sometimes to land
    • Essentially Robot Spacecraft, designed to collect information about distant worlds, and transmit it back to the Earth
    • Ranger - Explored the Moon prior to the Apollo Missions
    • Mariner - Explored Venus and Mercury
  • Pioneer - Explored Jupiter and Saturn
  • Viking - Explored Mars, including a Lander which touched down on the planet’s surface
  • Voyager - Explored Jupiter and Saturn

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing

unmanned spacecraft5
Unmanned Spacecraft
  • Satellites as a System - All the parts that make them work, and the environment they must work in:
    • People - Designers, Manufacturers, Launch Crew, Operators, Customers
    • Space Environment - Hazardous: Vacuum, Micro-Gravity, Radiation, Solar Energy/Flares, Meteorites/Debris impact, Atmospheric Drag
    • Sub-Systems -
      • Structure - the physical body of the satellite, and its protection,
      • Propulsion - Boosts Satellite into correct orbit AFTER initial Launch,
      • Attitude Control - Minor position adjustments,
      • Power - normally electrical power to work onboard systems,
      • Thermal Control - Protection from Extreme Cold and Heat of Space,
      • Mission Package - e.g. Imaging, Communications Relay
    • Command and Control - Data (telemetry) to ground control, control instructions (propulsion, attitude and onboard systems activation/shutdown)
    • Launch - The Vehicle used to get the satellite into orbit, presently, this is always a rocket

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing

unmanned spacecraft6
Unmanned Spacecraft
  • Orbits and Trajectories
    • Copernicus’ ‘Heliocentric’ theory - Early theory that the Sun was the center of the Universe, and everything else revolved around it - WRONG! (but a promising start)
    • Kepler’s 1st Law - ‘The orbit of each planet is an ellipse, with the Sun at the focus’
    • Elliptical Orbits - A Satellites Altitude and Velocity vary, and the shape of the orbit can vary considerably, depending on the type of orbit desired
      • Lowest point is called the Perigee
      • Highest point is called the Apogee
    • Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation - Explains the gravitational ‘pull’ between bodies
      • The forces of Gravity always act towards the center of the body, in our case, towards the center of the Earth

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing

unmanned spacecraft7
Unmanned Spacecraft
  • Important Names (Quiz):
  • Satellite
  • Orbit
  • Apogee
  • Perigee
  • Sputnik
  • Comsat
  • Intelsat
  • Navstar
  • Landsat
  • GOES

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing

manned spacecraft
Manned Spacecraft
  • Project Mercury - America’s first manned space program
    • 6 manned flights over 2 years
    • First flight - Lt. Cdr. Alan B. Shepard USN, 15 minute, sub-orbital flight, on a Mercury Redstone
    • Third flight (now using an Atlas rocket) - Lt. Col John Glenn USMC, 1st to orbit (3 orbits)
    • Last Flight - Capt. ‘Gordo’ Cooper USAF, 22 orbits
  • Project Gemini - 2 man capsule, with a more powerful Titan II rocket
    • 10 flights in total
    • missions lasted for several days
    • 1st docking of two spacecraft achieved
    • invaluable data for ‘long’ duration space-flight

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing

manned spacecraft9
Manned Spacecraft
  • Project Apollo - Powerful new ‘Saturn’ rockets intended to ‘put a man on the moon’
    • 3 man crew
    • included Command Module and Lunar Lander
    • Apollo 1 - terrible disaster killed 3 astronauts
    • Apollo 11 - July 20th 1969, successfully landed two men on the Moon (Aldrin and Armstrong) while astronaut Collins orbited in the command module
      • Neil Armstrong was the first to walk on the surface
    • Apollo 13 - near disaster following an explosion in space, but the crew survived due to incredible skill and ingenuity of both the 3 man crew and the ground support team - they never landed on the Moon, but used their Lander as a ‘Lifeboat’

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing

manned spacecraft10
Manned Spacecraft
  • Project Skylab - manned orbiting Laboratory
    • launched May 1973
    • used Apollo-Saturn equipment
    • size of a 3 bedroom house
    • missions lasted up to 84 days
    • crew of 3
    • Proved a crew could survive in space for at least 3 months
  • Project Apollo-Soyuz - US and Soviet spacecraft docking while in orbit
    • occurred July 1975
    • craft remained docked for 2 days
    • unprecedented US/Soviet cooperation during Cold War

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing

manned spacecraft11
Manned Spacecraft
  • Space Shuttle (Orbiter) - partially reusable, manned US launch system
    • First flight to space in April 1981, astronauts John Young and Bob Crippen
    • Combined Liquid and Solid rockets provide propulsion for launch
    • reentry is un-powered, relying on the aerodynamic shape of the orbiter to glide to a runway landing
    • Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavor have flown in space
      • Columbia and Challenger were both lost,with the tragic loss of all crewmembers
    • Discovery deployed the ‘Hubble’ Space Telescope in April 1990

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing

manned spacecraft12
Manned Spacecraft
  • Soviet (Russian) Space Program - main competitor to US Program
    • Worlds first satellite in space (Sputnik) 1957
    • Worlds first man in space (Yuri Gagarin) 1961
    • Worlds first space-walk (Alexei Leonov) 1965
    • Worlds first space station (Salyut 1) 1971
  • Most recent and largest Soviet/Russian space station was Mir, which actually docked with the US Space Shuttle and hosted astronauts from several countries including the US
  • The workhorse of the Soviet/Russian space program was and is the Soyuz

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing

manned spacecraft13
Manned Spacecraft
  • Important Names (Quiz):
  • Mercury
  • Gemini
  • Apollo
  • Skylab
  • Apollo-Soyuz
  • Space Shuttle

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing

living and working in space
Living and Working in Space
  • Space Stations - A home and workplace in Space
    • Salyut and Mir - starting in 1971, the Soviet Union launched a series of Space Stations called ‘Salyut’, with each new station an improvement on the last
      • Mir replaced Salyut, initially about the same size, but later enlarged with a series of ‘Modules’
      • Aestronauts/Cosmonauts from many countries visited Mir, including the United States
    • Skylab - US Space Station launched in 1993, used mainly for scientific experiments
    • Spacelab - a Europeanresearch ‘module’ carried in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle, a temporary facility that flew several times

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing

living and working in space15
Living and Working in Space
  • Living and Working on Space Stations
    • Microgravity (virtual weightlessness) exists on Space Stations
    • Normal Air, and Heat inside, so spacesuits are replaced by t-shirts
    • Sleeping Bags, Toilets, Exercise Machines and a Galley for the Crew
    • Extravehicular Activities (EVA) - ‘Spacewalking’ outside the station/vehicle
      • First Spacewalk by Aleksie Leonov in 1965
      • Space is a VERY hostile environment
    • Spacesuits - provide protection, air and heat/cooling
      • Evolved from suits developed for high altitude pilots
      • Balance of protection vs flexibility
    • Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) -
      • Backpack that allows astronauts to ‘fly’in space outside the Space Shuttle
      • Developed by NASA, first used in 1984

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing

living and working in space16
Living and Working in Space
  • The Future in Space
    • Space Stations - Bigger, better, collaborative
      • Alpha (ISS) - International project, started in Nov. 1998
      • US and Russia shares responsibility for launching components
      • US launches and recovers crew (combined US Russian)
      • Russia provides most resupply flight, emergency escape vehicle, and garbage disposal
      • Other countries will become steadily more involved, providing modules and crew
    • Launch Vehicles - Cheaper, Flexible, Reusable
      • X-37 - Unmanned technology demonstrator,tests ideas for eventual shuttle replacement

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing

living and working in space17
Living and Working in Space
  • Important Names (Quiz):
  • Space Station Alpha
  • Mir
  • Salyut
  • Skylab
  • Spacelab
  • EVA
  • MMU
  • Spacesuit

Dr. R.A. Bartholomew - Civil Air Patrol, New Jersey Wing