World of Matter Standard 9
What is matter Matter is something that occupies space and has mass. Non – Matter Matter
Matter is made up of small particles Every substance is made up on small particles (called molecules). Each particle has the same properties as the original substance. A chemical bond holds the particles together. The strength of the bond between the particles determines many properties of that substance.
Particles of matter are in motion If you add a few drops of potassium permanganate to water you will observe that the color of the entire solution will change even if you don’t stir the solution. This is because particles of matter are always in motion. Particles of a solid vibrate in their place while those of liquid and gas can move about more freely.
There is gap between particles There is a lot of gap in between two particles of a substance. When you add potassium permanganate to water, the particles of potassium permanganate occupy the space between the water particles. Water molecule Potassium permanganate molecule There is very little empty space between particles in a solid. Gases have the maximum amount of empty space between particles Solid Liquid Gas
Properties of Matter • Matter is made up on small particles. • Particles of matter are held together by a chemical bond. • Every particle of matter has the same properties. • Particles of matter are in constant motion. • There is gap between the particles of matter.
States of matter Gas Plasma Solid Liquid Plasma – Highly excited gas which has lost its electrons Bose-Einstein Condensate NEW!– matter at the coldest temperatures (0.000,000,001°K)
Viscosity Viscosity describes a liquid’s resistance to flow. Honey is more viscous then kerosene which is more viscous then water.
Changing the state of matter 120 Boiling Point 90 Temperature (°C) 60 30 Melting Point 0 -30 6 4 0 2 8 10 Time (s)
What happens on heating Matter is made up on small particles which are in constant motion. When you heat matter, the particles of matter absorb the heat energy and begin moving faster (in other words they gain kinetic energy). As more energy is provided the chemical bond between the particles become weaker and hence there is change is the state of matter. Latent heat is the heat absorbed or released when matter undergoes a change of state without a change in it temperature. Latent heat of fusion – Melting Latent heat of vaporization – Boiling
Sublimation Take some ammonium chloride in a china dish. Place an inverted glass funnel over it. Heat the dish gently. Ammonium chloride converts directly from solid state to gaseous state. Some substances like ammonium chloride, camphor, dry ice (solid CO2) and naphthalene on heating transition directly from solid state to gaseous state. This direct transition from solid state to gaseous state is known as sublimation.
Evaporation Evaporation is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs only on the surface of a liquid. When the molecules collide, they transfer energy to each other. Sometimes during the transfer a molecule near the surface ends up with enough energy to escape. Evaporation is all about the energy in individual molecules. Rate of evaporation depends up on surface area, temperature, flow of air and concentration of the substance in air (humidity)
Conversion from on state to another Gas BEC Plasma De-ionization Ionization sublimation condensation evaporation deposition Solid Liquid freezing melting