The Tudor Dynasty 1485-1603
The Beginning • Henry VII (r. 1485-1509) • Used diplomacy, avoided war, & strengthened England’s interest abroad • Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547) • Made England a great naval power • Married 6 times • Broke with Catholic Church & started the Church of England • Seized monastery lands & sold to wealthy landowners • House of Commons increased its power during this reign
Edward VI (r. 1547-1553) • Only 9 years old when he became king • Was advised by Protestant leaders • Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury • England was in a time of turmoil • Edward died at the age of 15
Mary I (r. 1553-1558)(Bloody Mary) • Married Philip II of Spain in 1554 • Met strong opposition in England • Restored Catholicism in 1555 • Had about 300 Protestants burned at the stake for heresy • Involved England in a war with France • England lost the port of Calais • Mary died childless & the throne went to her sister
Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) • Became queen at the age of 25 • Used her authority for the common good of her people • Earned the loyalty and confidence of her subjects • Her reign was one of England’s great cultural periods. • She strongly supported the arts, e.g. the theater and Shakespeare • The English language was transformed into one of beauty, grace, vigor, and clarity
The Marriage Question • It was expected that Elizabeth would marry & her husband would rule. • Women were not considered able to be good monarchs • She felt marrying a foreign prince would endanger England • Marrying an English nobleman would cause jealousies among the others • In the end she refused to marry & therefore would produce no heir
Think (Write), Pair, Share Why would Elizabeth think that marrying a foreign prince would put England at risk?
Elizabeth I and Parliament • Was assisted by a council of nobles • They handled much of the administrative duties • They were assisted by professional, poorly paid bureaucrats • Parliament did not have the power to initiate legislation • Could plead, urge, advise, and withhold approval • Law enforcement was by justices of the peace & were volunteer positions • Maintained peace, collected taxes, & kept government informed of local conditions.
Social Policy • Social rank • Queen and her court • Prominent nobles from landed families • Gentry • Lesser nobles, merchants, lawyers, & clergy • Yeomen • Farmers with small land holdings & laborers
Economic Policy • Statute of Apprentices (1563) • Declared work as a social & moral duty • Required people to live & work where they were born • Controlled the movement of labor, fixed wages, & regulated apprenticeships • The Poor Laws of 1597 & 1601 • Local areas responsible for their own homeless & unemployed • Ability to raise money for charity & provide work for “vagabonds”
Foreign Policy • England had no continental lands when Elizabeth began her reign • Developed a strong navy • Relied on diplomacy • Operated as the third balancing power • This helped prevent one country from dominating others • Elizabeth sought to solidify English ties with Scotland and Ireland
Think (Write), Pair, Share What foreign policy strategy did England develop under Elizabeth I reign?
Elizabeth I & Mary, Queen of Scots • 1560s Scotland became Protestant & an ally of England • Mary (Stuart), Queen of Scots forced to abdicate the throne in 1567 • Mary was Catholic & in line to the English throne • Was accused of plotting with Catholics against Elizabeth • 1587 was executed • Elizabeth died at the age of 69 in 1603 • James I (son of Mary, Queen of Scots) became king & founder of the Stuart dynasty