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The Tudor Monarchy

The Tudor Monarchy

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The Tudor Monarchy

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  1. The Tudor Monarchy Conflicts over Belief

  2. The Tudor Rose • Conflict between the Houses of Lancaster and York • Henry VII was part of the house of Lancaster • Married Edward IV’s Daughter Elizabeth of York

  3. Henry VII • Won his kingship from Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. • Rumors that Richard III was a hunchback were thought to be propaganda to promote Henry’s rule • When the skeleton of Richard III was discovered they found that he actually had Scholeosis.

  4. His Children • Arthur – heir to the thrown • Margaret – Married James IV of Scotland • Henry – Intended for the Church • Elizabeth – Died at age 3 • Mary – First Married Louis XII of France then married Charles Brandon after his Death • Edmond Duke of Somerset – Died in infancy • Katherine – Died just after birth as did her mother Elizabeth of York

  5. A Royal Wedding • Prince Arthur Marries Katherine of Aragon in order to form an alliance with Spain and help legitimize Henry VII’s rule • Prince Arthur died soon afterward leaving Katherine a widow and young Henry heir to the throne.

  6. Henry VIII • Crowned king on April 24, 1509 at the age of 17 • He was very intelligent • A talented musician • Also a deeply religious man. • Very tall, fair, and good looking.

  7. Katherine Queen of England • Henry VIII married his older brother’s widow Katherine of Aragon. • She swore that her marriage to Arthur was never consummated. • Henry and Katherine got a papal dispensation from the Pope allowing them to marry.

  8. Katherine of Aragon Video: Katherine of Aragon https://youtube.googleapis.com/v/2uBkxTYFuwQ%26feature=relmfu

  9. Martin Luther • German Monk • Upset by the Church’s policy of selling indulgences. • Wrote a letter to the bishop protesting the practice • Included in the letter his 95 thesis • Not looking to split the church just looking for reform.

  10. Religious Struggles • Henry VIII wrote a response to the 95 thesis called “In defense of the Seven Sacraments” • He also praised the position of the Pope as head of the church. • This earned him the title of Defender of the Faith from the Pope.

  11. Good King Henry • Popular King • Catholic King • Married happily to Katherine of Aragon for 16 years. • In short: “Everything was going hunky-dory…BUT…”

  12. Anne Boleyn • Needed a son • Fell for one of Katherine of Aragon’s ladies in waiting, Anne Boleyn. • Some say Henry wrote Greensleeves for Anne

  13. The King’s Great Matter • Henry demanded an annulment from the Pope • The Pope refused for several reasons - Henry implied that the pope did not have the right to grant the papal dispensation for him to marry Katherine. - Katherine’s Nephew, Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor had the Pope in his power.

  14. A Change of Faith • The pope, unwilling to make an enemy of Charles V and also wanting to appease Henry used political maneuvering in order to delay the decision. • Anne and Henry got more and more impatient. • Anne finally gave in to Henry and became Pregnant • Henry appointed Thomas Cranmer as archbishop. • Secret marriage between Anne and Henry without the pope’s consent. • Katherine was sent away where she eventually died.

  15. The Second Marriage • Marriage to Anne was unpopular • She did not give him a son but a daughter, Elizabeth. • Her strong personality was appealing as a mistress but not as a wife. • She did not look the other way when Henry had affairs with other women as Katherine had. • Two miscarriages, the second one a son.

  16. Jane Seymour • Henry was drawing closer to one of Anne Boleyn’s ladies in waiting, Jane Seymour. • The opposite of Anne in personality. • Wanted another annulment from Anne in order to marry Jane Seymour. • Members of his court looked for a reason to help rid him of Anne.

  17. Humor Involving Henry’s Love Life Eddie Izzard Humor involving Henry VIII: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ope-1Zb5t-k

  18. The Accusations • Charges were Adultery with a number of gentlemen of the court including a court musician, and her own Brother • Seducing the King by witchcraft • Accused her of prophesying the King’s death. • The King also thought she was plotting to murder the Duke of Richmond, Henry Fitzroy, Henry VIII’s son by his mistress Elizabeth Blount and his daughter by Katherine of Aragon Mary Tudor.

  19. Problems with the Accusations • Records show that the dates she supposedly had affairs with these men did not match where she actually was at the time based on court records. • Rumor has it her brother (accused with her) was actually homosexual. • If Henry got an annulment on the grounds that he had a relationship with her sister, which means that they were never truly married in the first place, how could Anne be accused of adultery?

  20. The Trails • Anne was imprisoned in the tower. • The men she was accused with were tried first. • Most, including her brother, were found guilty and executed by beheading • Anne’s trial was next but if the men were guilty so was she • Executed May 19th 1536 by a French Swordsman.

  21. A Son Prince Edward • Secretly betrothed to Jane Seymour 24 hours after Anne was executed. • Jane finally gave him the son he desired • Died in childbirth

  22. A New Marriage • Political marriage • The parade of Princesses • Dispatched Holbein to paint pictures • Painted Anne of Cleaves and her sister Ameilia • Henry chose Anne

  23. Anne of Cleaves • Saw her and changed his mind • Said she looked like a horse • Tried to get out of the marriage by claiming she was precontracted to marry someone else

  24. Continued • Claimed he could not bring himself to consummate the marriage • Anne was smart and agreed to the annulment • For the rest of her life she was treated as Henry VIII’s sister • Also, as ever, Henry had fallen for one of Anne’s ladies in waiting, Katherine Howard.

  25. Katherine Howard • Niece of the Duke of Norfolk and Anne Boleyn’s cousin • Had a past before marrying Henry • Very young, somewhere between 17 and 21. • His Rose without a Thorn

  26. Another Execution • Had an affair with Thomas Culpepper but as actually accused of two affairs, one of which, a relationship with Francis Durham occurred before her marriage. • Lady Jane Parker, the former wife of George Boleyn was accused of plotting the affair with her. • Executed by beheading on February 12 1542.

  27. Another Marriage • Stayed single for 18 months then married Katherine Parr. • She was over 30 and had been widowed twice • He wanted more of a caretaker

  28. Katherine Parr • Married 1543 • Very Protestant • Produced Religious writings • Got in trouble for contradicting Henry and was almost arrested for it. • Got out of it by saying she only wanted to learn from Henry

  29. The Last Wife • Outlived Henry • Married Thomas Seymour the brother of Jane Seymour • Raised Elizabeth • Some say there was an inappropriate relationship between Thomas Seymour and Elizabeth.

  30. Divorced, Beheaded, and Died, Divorced, Beheaded Survived Horrible Histories: Divorced, Beheaded and Died https://youtube.googleapis.com/v/-fadCAHjN-s

  31. The Advisors: Wolsey • Cardinal Wolsey was Henry VIII’s Chancellor • Very influential in English politics • Attempted to secure an annulment from Katherine of Aragon • Unsuccessful mostly because of Katherine’s Spanish connections

  32. Wolsey’s Fall • Anne Boleyn did not like him • Henry Blamed him for not getting the annulment fast enough • Arrested for High treason • Died on the road to his trial in London

  33. Thomas More • Became Chancellor after Wolsey • Famous Lawyer and Intellectual • Wrote Utopia • Encouraged Henry in writing his Defense of the Seven Sacraments

  34. The Fall of Thomas More • Retired from office before Henry married Anne Boleyn • Refused to take the oath of succession, which denounced the marriage of Katherine of Aragon • Arrested for treason • Show trial • Executed saying “I die the King’s good servant, but God’s first.”

  35. Thomas Cromwell • Took over as Chancellor • Was in charge of dissolving the monasteries • Helped with the reformation of the Church of England • Had control of the Royal Finances

  36. The Fall of Cromwell • Pilgrimage of Grace 1536 • Upset not with the King but with Cromwell • King promised them pardon • Kept fighting anyway and so he cracked down • Northern Lords were also upset with Cromwell’s central government • Final straw was that Henry blamed him for the marriage to Anne of Cleaves • Executed for treason in 1540, Henry married Katherine Howard that same day

  37. How Henry Got Fat • Started out strong, tall, and hansom • Fell off his horse while jousting during his marriage to Anne • The injury never healed and had to be drained every day but he still continued to eat as much as ever • Had gout • Had Syphilis

  38. Tudor Diet Horrible Histories: Tudor Diet https://youtube.googleapis.com/v/fbyBtiwAXX0

  39. The Death of Henry VIII • January 28, 1547 • Soon after his nine year old son Edward Succeeded to the thrown as Edward VI

  40. Act of Succession • Henry restored both Mary and Elizabeth to the Succession after Edward. • The nine Days Queen • Specifically left out the heir of his sister Margret because of her Scottish marriage but the Stewarts came from that line.