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Henry VII – Elizabeth I. Tudor Dynasty – blood, power, and succession. Democracy. What is democracy? Give example of democracy in Canada and the US What kind of powers do the presidents and the Premier have?. What is democracy?.

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  • What is democracy?
  • Give example of democracy in Canada and the US
  • What kind of powers do the presidents and the Premier have?
what is democracy
What is democracy?
  • government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system.
  • a state of society characterized by formal equality of rights and privileges.
  • the common people of a community as distinguished from any privileged class; the common people with respect to their political power.
hypothetically we live in a democracy
Hypothetically we live in a democracy ....?
  • The surface of American society is covered with a layer of democratic paint, but from time to time one can see the old aristocratic colours breaking through. - Alexis de Tocqueville
  • Through out this unit we will look at the Tudor Era, compare their times to that of our own, and take a critical look at the world we live in. Underlying themes:
    • Laws; use of torture
    • Women leaders
empire building
Empire Building
  • Late 15th century and early 16th century Europe was expanding its’ knowledge of the world – see page 395.
  • With new technologies and instruments made travel and exploration more plausible, nations began to increase their sphere of influence.
  • SPHERE OF INFLUENCE – an area or region that a state has significant cultural, military, economic, and political influence.
  • Why would nations want a sphere of influence?
everybody else is
Everybody else is....
  • Why did European rulers want to build their empire?
    • Power – age of war
    • Goods – show their wealth
    • Money – to increase their wealth
  • Portugal, Spain and Dutch were the leaders in exploration.
  • England and France played only a small role but were more interested for overseas trading colonies.
henry viii
Henry VIII
  • Second to rule England Tudor dynasty.
  • After the death of his eldest brother, Henry married his brothers’ wife, Catherine of Aragon, Spanish princess.
  • Their first daughter was Mary.
  • After a near death experienced Henry realized he had no male heir to continue the Tudor dynasty. Protecting the throne guided Henry’s rule until his death.
the annulment
The annulment
  • Catherine unfortunately was unable to produce a male heir. She had several children that died during infancy leaving Henry desperately looking for way out of the marriage.
  • Normally church authorities might have been willing to grant the King an annulment but Pope Clement VII was dependent on the Spanish Emperor, Charles V, Catherine’s nephew.
  • Impatient with the pope’s inaction, Henry sought to obtain an annulment of his marriage in England’s own ecclesiastical courts. – Determined “null and void” May 1533.
the boleyn girl 1533 1536
The Boleyn Girl – 1533-1536
  • Anne Boleyn – Catherine’s lady in waiting
  • After the annulment Henry announced his marriage to Anne, who had already become pregnant. A child was born, but to Henry’s disappointment, the baby was a girl, the future Queen Elizabeth.
  • 250 servants, 60 maids (ladies in waiting), held extravagant banquets, purchased gowns, jewels and head dresses
  • 1534 – broke away from the Catholic church and unearthed the Church of England. This gave him control over the doctrine, clerical appointments and discipline but actually did little to change it.
  • Rumours started to spread
    • Witch – who had control over the King
    • Committing Adultery
  • After two miscarriages Anne failed to produce a male heir and Henry began to believe the rumours. Some say that Thomas Cromwell, the Kings Chief Ministerplotted against the Queen because of their disagreements.
  • Four men were arrested for being the Queen’s lover, including Mark Smeaton, a Flemish Muscian who was near tortured to death as well as her brother George Boleyn.
  • The Queen was accused of high treason, adultery and incest and was executed along with her four “lovers”.
jane seymour 1536 1537
Jane Seymour 1536-1537
  • Shortly after Anne’s death, Henry began courting Jane, former lady in waiting for both Catherine and Anne.
  • Henry’s true love.
  • Pale, Blonde – Most stunning
  • Conservative
  • Devout to Catherine, reinstated

Mary to the throne.

  • Had a son Edward VI, but she died

shortly after his birth.

anne of cleves
Anne of Cleves
  • Henry’s fourth wife.
  • Queen of England from Jan 6 1540 – July 9 1540
  • The reason why their marriage ended to quickly was because the painter assigned to paint a portrait of German princess’ painted a more flattering picture than what Henry VIII saw in reality He claimed she looked like a “horse.”
  • The marriage was never consummated. "I liked her before not well, but now I like her much worse".
  • The king annulled the marriage with the permission of Anne. He gave her a generous settlement and she was invited to court often, considered good friends of the Tudor family.
kathryn howard
Kathryn Howard
  • July 1540 – Feb 1542
  • First cousin of Anne Boleyn
  • She was 19 when she came to court as Anne of Cleves lady in waiting.
  • Henry gained quite a bit of weight, but young Kathryn increased his secrets.
  • Not even a year after their marriage their was rumours of Kathryn’s infidelity. She was rumoured to flirt with men who was closer to her age.
  • By Nov 1542 There was enough evidence against the Queen to accuse her of being promiscuous and she executed Feb 1542.
katherine parr
Katherine Parr
  • Lady in waiting to Queen Catherine of Aragon
  • Fluent in French, Italian, Spanish and Latin
  • 31 when married King
  • She was interested in reformed faith, which made her enemies of the conservatives of the court. Her influence and Henry’s growing illness caused a plot against her in 1546. Anne Askew, a well-known active protestant, was tortured but failed to give any evidence of the Queen’s heresy. There was sufficient evidence of the her crimes, and there was a warrant for her arrest. The Queen was tipped off and “fell ill”. Henry forgave her.
  • Henry died in Jan 1547. She married Thomas Seymour shortly after ( who was Jane Seymour’s uncle).
vide0 horrible histories
Vide0 - Horrible Histories
  • Divorced Beheaded Died
  • Divorced Beheaded Survived
  • AKA
    • Catherine of Aragon – died of heart cancer, a black heart, some say broken heart
    • Anne Boleyn – accused of cheating and being a witch
    • Jane Seymour- love of his life, actually produced a son
    • Anne of Cleves – face of a horse, mutual agreement of divorce
    • Kathryn Howard – not faithful, younger than him
    • Katherine Parr - survived
video tudor song
Video – Tudor Song
  • Pay attention to
    • How did the Tudor’s rule?
  • Also what kind of themes we might look at over the course of the Tudor Era?
  • The Tudor Song
reformation root word reform
Reformation – root word “reform”
  • Marriage changed with Henry VIII.
  • Reformation- challenged Roman Catholic doctrines and instituted the Church of England.
  • Martin Luther declared marriage to be “a worldly thing . . . that belongs to the realm of government”.
  • Marriage becomes secular. Marriage Laws are now altered by the king.
key terms
Key Terms
  • Absolute: without any limits
  • Constitutional monarchy: monarchy in which the power of a monarch is limited by the constitution
  • Democracy: government chosen by free or fair elections
  • Dictatorship: system of government headed by a single person, or small group, whose rule is based on force rather than free elections
  • Legitimate: born to legally married parents and therefore having the right to succeed to royal position in many countries
  • Military dictator: dictator whose power depends on control of soldiers rather than a political party
absolute monarchy
Absolute Monarchy
  • Parliament: group of people who write laws for a country
  • Prime Minister: Head of a governing group
  • Republic: system of government headed by an elected president
  • Tyrant: absolute ruler with arbitrary power
  • Arbitrary: not controlled by law or reason
  • Means rule by a single person.
  • Usually claim descent from a ruling family (dynasty) or sometimes even a god. Less often they claim the throne through rebellion.
  • “Family business,” when a king dies his first born son takes over– This is why Henry VIII was in search of male heir. In the past if there was no heir to the throne a civil war would break out.
not as simple as it seems
Not as simple as it seems...
  • Even if monarchs are very hardworking, ministers are still needed to serve as advisors, and generals and officials are needed to carry out orders.
  • They can be challenged by ambitious ministers or members of his or her own family, especially when there are problems within the kingdom. – Perhaps why Henry was quick to put down any treasonous acts.
defender of the faith
Defender of the Faith

The title “Defender of the Faith” was given to the Catholic Henry VIII (1509- 1647) by the Pope for writing a Defense of the Seven Sacraments, which attacked the Protestant teachings of Martin Luther. When Henry VIII decided to make himself – instead of the Pope – head of the Church of England, the king kept the title.

problems of power
Problems of power
  • “All power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.” – Lord Acton (1834-1902)
women absolute rulers
Women absolute rulers

“God’s death! My lord, I will have but one mistress [England] and no master.” – Elizabeth I

elizabeth i
Elizabeth I
  • Daughter of Anne Boleyn
  • The article written by a modern historian glorifies the rule of Elizabeth I.
  • Do you agree?
  • What personality traits do you admire?
  • Why do believe she was a successful ruler?
elizabeth i1
Elizabeth I
  • Became queen in 1558 at the age of 25. After her sister and brother King Edward (Jane Seymore’s son) and Queen Mary (bloody Mary) who ruled before her.
    • Edward ruled from 1547 – 1553 at the age of 9. Died in 1553
    • Mary married Philip II of Spain and ruled England for a brief period. She was called Bloody Mary because she returned England to Catholicism and burned about 300 Protestants to the stake. Many English people also feared that England would soon be controlled by Spain.
elizabeth i2
Elizabeth I
  • Protestant
  • “shrewd, highly educated and had a forceful personality”
  • Used her force for the common good of her people
    • She earned their loyalty through travelling the Kingdom
  • Great cultural period in English history during her rule
    • Theatre flourished under playwrights such as William Shakespeare
  • The people expected her to marry, but she did not.
    • Foreign prince might endanger England
elizabeth i domestic policy
Elizabeth I & Domestic Policy
  • Council of 19 nobles that assisted her with government
  • Drafted proclamations, handled foreign relations, and supervised such matters as the administration of justice and regulations of prices and wages
  • The council did not have power to initiate legislation – they could only urge and advise
social rank
Social Rank

Laws that controlled Social Rank

  • Apprentice of 1563 – declared work to be a social and moral duty
    • Made people work and live where they were born, which controlled the movement of labour, fixed wages and regulated apprentices
  • Poor Laws of 1597
    • Made locals resp. For own homelessness and unemployed
elizabeth i foreign policy
Elizabeth I & Foreign Policy
  • Can’t expand in Europe; neighbours too powerful
  • Security – needed a strong navy to protect English Channel
  • France and Spain also had strong navies – so to protect their interests Elizabeth relied on diplomacy because she knew England could not defeat Spain and France simultaneously
  • This diplomacy was named balance of power. This “refers to the system in which each nations helps to keep peace and order by maintaining power that is equal to, or in balance with, rival nations.
foreign policy
Foreign Policy
  • Also kept good relations with Scotland and Ireland so they were not used as bases for attacks by the French and the Spanish
  • 1560s helped Scotland become Protestant and an ally of England
  • 1590s England carried out a military campaign to conquer the Irish. Resulted in temporary peace in the British Isles


elizabeth i3
Elizabeth I
  • Died 1603 at the age of 69.
  • End of the Tudor Dynasty
  • New monarch King James IV of Scotland, protestant son of Mary, Queen of Scots
maria theresa
Maria Theresa
  • 1740 inherited the Austrian throne at the age of 23 ( From her father Charles VI).
  • According to the law and custom, women were not permitted to rule Austria. But in 1713 Charles convinced the monarchs of Europe to sign the Pragmatic Sanction. This signified the acceptance of female succession to the Austrian throne.
  • She had not received any formal training in political matters however she was resourceful.
maria theresa vs fredrick i
Maria Theresa vs Fredrick I

War of the Austrian Succession 1740 - 1748

  • Not everyone accepted the Pragmatic Sanction. Prussian Ruler, Frederick II or Frederick the Great, challenged Maria’s rule which began the War of the Austrian Succession.
  • These alliances set the stage for further conflict.
  • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle which officially recognized Prussia’s rise and allowed them to keep Silesia. 1748
maria theresa1
Maria Theresa
  • She strengthened central government
    • They accepted such responsibilities such as public health, prisons, and roads.
  • She also ended trade barriers between Austria and Bohemia and used government funds to encourage the production of textiles and glass to produce a strong economy.
off with your head
Off with your head!

Medieval Life

  • How does someone become king? And how do they control the population??
  • During the era of absolute monarchies, strict power and authority was used to “keep the people down and under their thumb”.
  • Most monarchies ruled with fear. Fear of treason or fear of torture.
  • Question: When and why do you think torture was used?
  • Slaves
    • only tell the truth under torture, would never be valid if it was volunteer information
    • Until second century A.D , torture was only used on slaves.
  • Jews stoned people to death.
  • Egyptians had death by sun in the desert.
  • Romans crucified people reinforce the justice system.
    • Jesus Christ
  • Acts were considered necessary (as to deter others) and good (to punish the immoral)
enhanced interrogation techniques
“Enhanced Interrogation Techniques”
  • Video: - Where is this from?
  • Report on Torture 2006