Origin of the Ancient Olympic Games • An athletic and religious celebration • Held in Olympia • Held every four years • As early as 776 B.C. – A.D. 393.
Origin Myth #1 Hercules won a race at Olympia and the decreed that the race should be re-enacted every four years.
Myth #2 Zeus began Olympic games after defeating Cronus
Myth #3 King Iphitos of Elis, in an attempt to save his people from war, was instructed by the Oracle of Delphi to organize games in honor of the gods. The war was stopped during these games.
Myth #4 Held in honor of Pelops, king of Olympia and hero of Peloponnesian War. King Oenomaus challenged his daughters suitors. 13th suitor, Pelops, with help of Poseidon who provided him with divine horses and chariot, bribed Oenomaus’ charioteer (he pulled lynchpins). Oenomaus was killed and Pelops married the princess.
History of 1st Olympic Games • Probably began before 776 B.C. • 1st recorded in 776 B.C. • Only competition was the stadion race (190 meters measured after feet of Hercules) • Abolished in A.D. 394 by Roman emperor, Theodosius I.
Ancient Olympic Events • Only involved Greeks • Had to qualify • Only young people competed (women were allowed to participate in equestrian events)
For Guys only…. In 396 B.C. and in 392 B.C. – a Spartan princess named Cynisca won the four-horse race. (Against MEN!!!!)
Oh No…. Competitors competed naked! As they were celebration the weather and the achievements of the human body!
The Olympic Flame • Honor of the theft of fire from Zeus by Prometheus • “lit by the Sun on Mount Olympus” • Torch appeared in modern day Olympics in 1928 • Modern torch relay was introduced in Berlin in 1936
Pentathlon • Jason of Argos • 708 B.C. • Combination of five events: discus, javelin, long jump, running, and wrestling
Boxing • Invented by Apollo • 688 B.C. • Did not use gloves; used himantes (leather throng around hands and wrists)
Wrestling • 708 B.C. • Orthia Pale - Upright wrestling – try to throw opponent to ground 3 times • Kato Pale - Ground wrestling
Canoeing • 1936-present • Paddling a canoe or kayak
Fencing • 1896 • System of sword-based offense and defense
Arquebus • 1896 • Shooting
Pancratium • 648 B.C. • Event involving a combination of wrestling and boxing
Apene • 500 B.C. • Chariot race with two mules pulling a chariot
Tethrippon • 696 B.C. • A four-horsed chariot race for twelve laps
Synoris • 408 B.C. • A two-horse chariot race for eight laps
Diaulos • 724 B.C. • Running race of 400 meters
Stadion • 776 B.C. • 180 meter foot race
Dolichos • 700 B.C. • Running race of 1,400 – 1,800 meters
Hoplitodromos • 520 B.C. • A running race of 400 – 800 meters • With armor
Hiplitdromos Horse Race
Archery • 1900 – today • Using bow and arrow
Tug-of-War Not an event!
How long did the Olympics last? • Festival grew to 5 days (3 for events and 2 for religious purposes) • Final day – banquet • Winner – an olive branch
The rings represent the five parts of the world that were joined together in the Olympic movement: Africa, the Americas, Asia, Australia and Europe.
Olympic Winners • Heroes • Parades were held for them • Some even got free meals for a year
Herodotus • “Father of History” • Read his account of Persian War at the Olympics
1900 - Paris, France 1904 - St. Louis, Missouri, USA 1906 - Athens, Greece1908 - London, England 1912 - Stockholm, Sweden 1916 - Canceled1920 - Antwerp, Belgium 1924 - Paris, France 1928 - Amsterdam, Holland 1932 - Los Angeles, California, USA 1936 - Berlin, Germany 1940 - Canceled1944 - Canceled1948 - London, England 1952 - Helsinki, Finland 1956 - Melbourne, Australia 1960 - Rome, Italy 1964 - Tokyo, Japan 1968 - Mexico City, Mexico 1972 - Munich, Germany1976 - Montreal, Quebec, Canada 1980 - Moscow, USSR 1984 - Los Angeles, California, USA 1988 - Seoul, South Korea 1992 - Barcelona, Spain 1996 - Atlanta, Georgia, USA 2000 - Sydney, Australia 2004 - Athens, Greece 2008 - Beijing, China2012 - London, United Kingdom 1924 - Chamonix, France 1928 - St. Moritz, Switzerland 1932 - Lake Placid, New York, USA 1936 - Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany 1940 - Canceled1944 - Canceled1948 - St. Moritz, Switzerland 1952 - Oslo, Norway 1956 - Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy 1960 - Squaw Valley, California, USA 1964 - Innsbruck, Austria 1968 - Grenoble, France 1972 - Sapporo, Japan 1976 - Innsbruck, Austria 1980 - Lake Placid, New York, USA 1984 - Sarajevo, Yugoslavia1988 - Calgary, Alberta, Canada1992 - Albertville, France 1994 - Lillehammer, Norway 1998 - Nagano, Japan2002 - Salt Lake City, Utah, USA2006 - Turin, Italy2010 - Vancouver, Canada Sites of the Modern-Day Olympics:- Athens, Greece Locations of the Modern-Day Summer Olympics Locations of the Modern-Day Winter Olympics