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13 Colonies

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  1. 13 Colonies New England, Middle, Southern

  2. 13 Colonies • Along which ocean are these colonies located? • What natural boundary is to the west of the colonies? • http://www.brainpop.com/socialstudies/ushistory/thirteencolonies/

  3. New England Colonies

  4. New England Colonies • Massachusetts • Pilgrims (Separatists) • Wrote the Mayflower Compact—1620 • Puritans • New Hampshire • Settlers from Massachusetts settled here • Rhode Island • Settled by Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson • Left Massachusetts to be able to practice religious freedom • Connecticut • Thomas Hooker • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

  5. New England Colonies • Founded for religious reasons • Founded for Quakers, Pilgrims, and Puritans so they could practice their religion freely (without persecution) • Long winters, rocky soil, short growing season • Practiced subsistence farming • Lived near towns • English settlers made up the largest population • Decline in Puritan religion as other religions increased • Massachusetts gained religious freedom

  6. New England Economic Resources • Atlantic Ocean offered economic opportunities (fishing, ship building) • Lots of shipping and trade, lots of ports • Lots of timber • 3 types of trade: • With other colonies • Triangular trade • Direct exchange of goods with England • Had few slaves-was not economical

  7. Triangular Trade

  8. Middle Colonies

  9. Middle Colonies • New York • Taken from Holland/Named after the Duke of York • New Jersey • Given by the Duke of York to two of his friends • Pennsylvania • Founded by Willliam Penn for religious freedom-QUAKERS • Delaware • Granted their own Assembly by Penn

  10. Middle Colonies Founded for economic reasons Settlements crowded out Native Americans Skilled Dutch and German farmers Very diverse population-climate of tolerance Quakers eventually ended up in Pennsylvania looking for freedom of religion-again

  11. Middle Colonies Long growing season Cash crops of fruits, vegetables, and grain Produced so much grain they became known as the “Bread Basket” colonies Cities along rivers (Hudson-NY, Delaware-Philadelphia) exported cash crops and imported manufactured goods Colonists ate an average of 1lb of grain per day-3times more than we do today! Some owned slaves, although there were also free African Americans living there

  12. Southern Colonies

  13. Southern Colonies Good soil and a long growing season (almost all year) allowed plantations to thrive Rice, tobacco, and indigo were cash crops-Plantation economy Easy to export because of many waterways Plantation owners had a difficult time finding laborers White indentured servants only worked for a few years and could easily save to buy their own farms

  14. Southern Colonies • Maryland • Established by Lord Baltimore for religious freedom-Catholics • Virginia (Jamestown) • The Carolinas (Carolina is from the Latin word for “Charles”) • Settled as a source of crops • Later divided into… • North Carolina and South Carolina • Georgia • Established by James Oglethorpe as a refuge for debtors

  15. Southern Colonies • Tried to force Native Americans to work for them • Too many died from European diseases • Others knew the land well enough to run away • Slaves made up about 40%of the South's population • Slavery allowed the plantation system to grow

  16. Colonial Government Colonial governments were established to provide representation and provide for individual freedoms. Mayflower Compact Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Virginia House of Burgesses

  17. Roots of Representative Government • Magna Carta-1215, King John signed a document granting rights to English People • Gave certain rights to English noblemen and freemen • Prevented the king from taking property • King could not tax people without the consent of a council • No trials without witnesses; punished by peers only • Parliament-England’s chief lawmaking body • English Bill of Rights-1689, royal agreement to respect the rights of English citizens and Parliament • Salutary Neglect-Leaving alone in a helpful way

  18. Virginia House of Burgesses (1619) A BURGESS was an elected representative Created in 1619 to limit the power of the governor First representative government in the American colonies

  19. Mayflower Compact (1620) Pilgrims agreed to obey laws for the good of the colony Established the idea of self-government and majority rule

  20. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639) Puritans wrote this “constitution”; self government Gave voting rights to non-church members Limited the power of the governor

  21. Triangular Trade A transatlantic system of trade in which goods, including slaves, were exchanged between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies and the colonies in North America.

  22. Transatlantic Slave Trade Slaves captured in Africa Sent to the West Indies and then on to the colonies Many did not survive the “Middle Passage” (Middle leg of the triangular trade) Estimated 2 million die during the Middle Passage Supported the plantation system

  23. Mercantilism Mercantilism is the colony supporting the Mother Country’s” economy Parliament controlled the trade of the colonies in order to benefit the “Mother Country” Colonists were expected to sell their raw materials only to England and at very low prices The colonists were expected to buy manufactured goods only from England, which were expensive

  24. Mercantilism

  25. Mercantilism? The American colonies export raw materials to England The American colonies purchase finished goods from England The American colonies purchase finished goods from France The American colonies manufacture finished goods and sell them to England England buys raw materials from France The American colonies import raw materials from the Spanish West Indies England manufactures goods and sells them to France The American colonies manufacture goods and sell them to Spain

  26. Enlightenment • An 18th Century movement that emphasized the use of reason and the scientific method to obtain knowledge. • Stressed reason and science • Ben Franklin • Started in Europe • John Locke argued that people have natural rights • Life • Liberty • Property • Challenged that kings had a God-given right to rule

  27. The Great Awakening Best described as a revival(awakening) of religious feeling in the American colonies in the 1730s and the 1740s