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North Africa and Southwest Asia. WGEOG92Y. The Middle East: Essential Questions. LOCATION: How has location affected the peoples of the Middle East? PLACE: How has the environment shaped the people of the Middle East? What religious ideas began and are associated with the region?

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the middle east essential questions
The Middle East: Essential Questions
  • LOCATION: How has location affected the peoples of the Middle East?
  • PLACE: How has the environment shaped the people of the Middle East?
  • What religious ideas began and are associated with the region?
  • How did Imperialism and Nationalism affect the region?
slide5

Section 2

North Africa

  • • The Nile River valley and ancient Egypt, one of the world’s great civilizations, formed a cultural hearth.
  • North Africa shares the Arabic language and the Islamic religion and culture with Southwest Asia.

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slide6

North Africa

Roots of Civilization in North Africa

North African Countries

• Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia

Egypt Blossoms Along the Nile

• Nile’s flooding provides water, rich soil, to help civilization grow

• Nile villages united into first Egyptian dynasty around 3100 B.C.

- Pharaohs rule Egypt for 2,600 years

• Egyptian geometry and medicine are spread by trade

Carthage

• Legend says great ancient city of Carthage was founded in 814 B.C.

- location on Gulf of Tunis peninsula make it a

trade center

Continued . . .

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slide7

continuedRoots of Civilization in North Africa

Islam in North Africa

• Over time, invaded by Greeks, Romans, Phoenicians, Ottoman Turks

• Islam is main cultural, religious influence

- monotheistic religion based on Muhammad’s

teachings

• Southwest Asian Muslims invade North Africa in A.D. 632

- take Egypt in 634; control whole region by 750

• Muslims bind territory with sea-linked trade zones

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slide8

Economics of Oil

Black Gold

• Oil has replaced cash crops, mining as economic base

- transformed economies of Algeria, Libya, Tunisia

• Oil also causes problems

- Libya’s workforce lacks training, education to work in oil industry

- high-paying oil jobs go to foreign workers

- despite oil, unemployment remains high

- Libyan workers migrate to Europe for jobs

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slide9

A Culture of Markets and Music

North African Souks

• Souks (marketplaces) are located in the medina (old section of town)

- best are in Marrakesh, Morocco

- high-pressure sales and fierce bargaining over clothes, spices, food

Protest Music

• Rai—fast-paced Algerian music is developed in 1920s by urban youth

- before independence in 1962, rai expresses anger at French colonizers

- today, rai is criticized by Islamic fundamentalists for Western style

- rai now a form of rebellion against Islamic fundamentalists

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slide10

Changing Roles of Women

Women and the Family

• Homes are centered around males, few women work after marriage

• Women’s roles are changing, especially in Tunisia

- multiple wives are prohibited; both spouses can seek divorces

- high spouse-abuse penalties; no more arranged marriages for young girls

• More women have professional jobs, with equal pay for equal jobs

- hold 7% of Tunisian parliamentary seats

- manage 9% of businesses in Tunis, Tunisia’s capital

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slide11

Physical Geography of Southwest Asia:

Harsh and Arid Lands

Southwest Asia’s land is mostly arid or desert. The region is defined by the resource it lacks—water, and the one it has in abundance—oil.

Sandstone near Wadi Madakhil, Saudi Arabia.

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the middle east
The Middle East
  • Also known as Southwest Asia.
    • “Crossroads of the World”
    • Consists of Southwest Asia, Southeast Europe and Northern Africa.
  • River Valley’s
    • Nile
    • Tigris-Euphrates
      • Mesopotamia
the middle east13
The Middle East
  • Deserts:
    • Sahara
    • Arabian
      • Rub’ al Khali or “Empty Quarter”
  • Mountains:
    • Atlas (Morocco)
    • Pontic and Taurus (Turkey)
    • Elburz and Zagros (Iran)
the middle east14
The Middle East
  • Northern Tier:
    • Plateau of Iran
    • Plateau of Anatolia
  • Arabian Peninsula
  • Fertile Crescent?
    • “Fertile Fish-hook”
    • “Breadbasket in the Desert”
slide15

Section 1

Landforms and Resources

• The Southwest Asian landforms have had a major impact on movement in the region.

• The most valuable resources in Southwest Asia are oil and water.

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slide16

Landforms and Resources

Landforms Divide the Region

Shifting Plates

• Southwest Asia forms a land bridge between Asia, Africa, Europe

• Region is at edge of a huge tectonic plate

- parts of Arabian Peninsula are pulling away from Africa

- parts of Anatolian Peninsula are sliding past parts of Asia

- other plates are pushing up mountains in other parts of Asia

Continued . . .

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slide17

continuedLandforms Divide the Region

Peninsulas and Waterways

• Arabian Peninsula lies between Red Sea and Persian Gulf

• Red Sea covers a rift valley created by Arabian plate movement

• Zagros, Elburz, Taurus mountains at north side cut off part of region

• Anatolian Peninsula (Turkey) is between Black and Mediterranean seas

• Strategic waterways include Suez Canal from Red Sea to Mediterranean

- Bosporus and Dardenelles straits connect to Russia, Asia

Continued . . .

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slide18

continuedLandforms Divide the Region

Plains and Highlands

• Arabian Peninsula is covered by dry, sandy, windy plains

- wadis—riverbeds that are dry except in rainy season

• Iran has stony, salty, sandy desert plateau surrounded by mountains

• Anatolian Peninsula is plateau with some agriculture, grazing

• Afghanistan’s Northern Plain is farming area surrounded by mountains

• Golan Heights(Al Jawlan)—plateau near Jordan River, Sea of Galilee

- site of conflict due to strategic location

Continued . . .

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slide19

continuedLandforms Divide the Region

Mountains

• Afghanistan’s Hindu Kush Mountains help frame southern Asia

- country is isolated by its landlocked, mountainous terrain

• Iran’s Zagros Mountains isolate it from rest of Southwest Asia

- Elburz Mountains cut Iran off from the Caspian Sea

• Taurus Mountains separate Turkey from rest of Southwest Asia

• Goods, people, ideas move through region in spite of mountains

Continued . . .

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slide20

continuedLandforms Divide the Region

Water Bodies

• Region is surrounded by bodies of water; few rivers flow all year

• The Tigrisand the Euphratesrivers flow through Turkey, Syria, Iraq

- Fertile Crescent supported several ancient civilizations

- parallel rivers meet at Shatt al Arab, empty into Persian Gulf

• Jordan River flows from Lebanon’s Mt. Hermon between Israel, Jordan

• Empties into Dead Sea—landlocked salt lake that only bacteria live in

- lowest place on earth’s exposed crust: 1,349 feet below sea level

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slide21

Resources for a Modern World

An Oil-Rich Region

• Oil is region’s most abundant resource

- oil fields located in Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Iraq

- provide major part of those nations’ income

• Half of the world’s oil reserves are in Southwest Asia

- found along Persian Gulf coast or at offshore sites

• U.S. and many other countries depend on oil reserves

Continued . . .

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slide22

continuedResources for a Modern World

Other Resources

• In some parts of region, the most valuable resource is water

• Water is relatively plentiful in Turkey, Iran, Lebanon, Afghanistan

- harnessed for hydroelectric power

• In other regions, water is scarce; must be guarded, conserved

• Coal, copper, potash, phosphate deposits mostly small, scattered

- Iran, Turkey have large coal deposits

- salts like calcium chloride around Dead Sea have not been developed

NEXT

slide23

Section 2

Climate and Vegetation

• Most of Southwest Asia has a very arid climate.

Irrigation is critical to growing crops in this very dry region.

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the middle east24
The Middle East
  • Climate:
    • One of the driest area in the world.
    • Close proximity to Equator.
      • Warm winters
      • Very HOT summers
      • Less than 10 inches of precipitation annually
      • Prone to flash floods.
slide25

Climate and Vegetation

Variety in Arid Lands

Mostly Dry and Desert, but Some Green

• Most areas get less than 18 inches of precipitation a year

• Rough, dry terrain includes sand dunes, salt flats

• Rivers don’t flow all year; plants, animals live on little water

- in many areas irrigation turns desert into farmland

• Other areas have Mediterranean climate; green, lush part of each year

• Mountain ranges and plateaus have highland climates

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slide26

Deserts Limit Movement

Sandy Deserts

• Rub al-Khali—Arabian Peninsuladesert, known as the Empty Quarter

- 250,000 square miles, with dunes as high as 800 feet

- 10 years can pass without rain

• Nearby An-Nafud Desert contains the occasional oasis

- desert area where underground spring water

supports vegetation

• Syrian Desert is between Lebanon, Israel, Syria, and Fertile Crescent

• Israel’s Negev Desert produces crops through irrigation

Continued . . .

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slide27

continuedDeserts Limit Movement

Salt Deserts

• In Iran, high mountains block rain; dry winds increase evaporation

- loss of moisture in soil leaves chemical salts, creates salt flat

• Iran’s salt flat deserts:

- Dasht-e Kavir in central Iran

- Dasht-e Lut in eastern Iran

• Land is salt-crusted, surrounded by salt marshes, very hot

- almost uninhabited, it’s a barrier to easy travel across Iran

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slide28

Semi-Arid Lands

The Edge of the Desert

• Fringes of deserts have semiarid climate

• Warm to hot summers; enough rainfall for grasses, shrubs

- cotton and wheat can be grown

• Good pasture for animals

- herds of mohair goats raised in Turkey

- mohair hair and fabrics from it are among Turkey’s exports

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slide29

Well-Watered Coast Lands

The Mediterranean Coast

• Areas along Mediterranean coast and in Turkey have adequate rainfall

- hot summers, rainy winters promote citrus fruits,

olives, vegetables

• Mild winters and summer irrigation let farmers grow crops all year

• Areas are heavily populated due to comfortable climate

The Tigris and Euphrates

• River valleys the site of intensive farming for thousands of years

- Turkey, Iraq built dams on rivers to provide

irrigation all year

NEXT

slide30

Section 3

Human-Environment Interaction

  • • Water is critical to regional physical survival and economic development.
  • Discovery of oil increased the global economic importance of Southwest Asia.

NEXT

slide31

Human-Environment Interaction

Providing Precious Water

Dams and Irrigation Systems

• Large farms and growing populations require dams, irrigation

- Turkey is building dams and a man-made lake on upper Euphrates

- controversial project will deprive downstream

countries of water

• Israel’s National Water Carrier project

- takes water from northern areas

- carries it to central, south, Negev Desert

- water flows through several countries so project creating conflict

Continued . . .

NEXT

slide32

continuedProviding Precious Water

Modern Water Technology

• Drip irrigation—small pipes slowly drip water just above ground

• Desalinization removes salt from ocean water at treatment plants

- plants are expensive, cannot provide enough water

• Wastewater can be treated and used for agriculture

• Fossil water is pumped from underground aquifers

- water has been in aquifer for long periods of time

- rainfall won’t refill aquifers; only 25–30 years of usage remain

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slide33

Oil From the Sand

Forming Petroleum

• Oil, natural gas deposits formed millions of years ago

- sea covered area; remains of plants, animals mingled in sand, mud

- pressure and heat slowly transformed material into hydrocarbons

• Oil, gas are not in underground pools, but in the tiny pores of rocks

- nonporous rock barriers trap gas, oil below surface

- makes oil difficult to find, remove

- wasn’t found in region until 1920–30s

Continued . . .

NEXT

slide34

continuedOil From the Sand

Early Exploration

• Industrialization, automobiles increase need for petroleum

• First oil discovery in region was in 1908 in Persia (now Iran)

- more oil fields found in Arabian Peninsula, Persian Gulf in 1938

• In 1948, al-Ghawar field discovered at eastern edge of Rub al-Khali

- became one of world’s largest oil fields

- contains one-quarter of Saudi Arabia’s oil reserves

Continued . . .

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slide35

continuedOil From the Sand

Transporting Oil

• Crude oil is petroleum that has not been processed

- refinery converts crude oil into useful products

• Pipelines move crude oil to refineries, ports

- ports on Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea

- tankers carry petroleum to world markets

• In some places refineries process crude oil near ports

Continued . . .

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slide36

continuedOil From the Sand

Risks of Transporting Oil

• Largest oil spill was in January 1991, during Persian Gulf War

- Kuwaiti tankers, oil storage tanks were blown up

- 240 million gallons of crude oil spilled into water, land

• Buried pipelines reduce accidents; are monitored for leaks

• Tankers are a high pollution risk; operate in shallow, narrow waters

- double hulls help prevent some spills

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slide37

Human Geography of Southwest Asia:

Religion, Politics, and Oil

The rise of major religions thousands of years ago and the discovery of oil in the past century have drastically shaped life in Southwest Asia.

An offshore oil rig in the United Arab Emirates.

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the economics of southwest asia middle east39
The Economics of Southwest Asia (Middle East)
  • Geographical Issues:
    • Location
    • Water Issues
    • Economic Issues
    • Political Issues
    • Security Issues
the economics of southwest asia middle east40
The Economics of Southwest Asia (Middle East)
  • The “Middle East” is the “Crossroads of the World”.
    • Confluence of:
      • Social ideas
        • Religion
      • Political Philosophies
        • Autocratic v. Plurality
      • Economic systems
        • Command v. Market
the economics of southwest asia middle east41
The Economics of Southwest Asia (Middle East)
  • Water Issues:
    • Resources:
      • Fresh Water v. Salt Water
    • Sustenance:
      • Have’s v. Have-not’s
      • “Water as a Weapon”
    • Transportation:
      • Trade Routes
the economics of southwest asia middle east42
The Economics of Southwest Asia (Middle East)
  • Economic Issues:
    • Agricultural production is limited due to a lack of arable land.
      • Growing population
      • Limited Production
    • Oil production is major economic activity in SWA.
      • Refining capability
the economics of southwest asia middle east43
The Economics of Southwest Asia (Middle East)
  • Political Issues:
    • Effect of Imperialism
    • Regional Identity v. Individual Identity
    • “Super Power Proxies”
    • The Palestinians
    • Israel
the economics of southwest asia middle east44
The Economics of Southwest Asia (Middle East)
  • Security Issues:
    • Historical Setting
      • Imperialism
      • Cold War
    • Arab/Palestinian v. Israeli
    • Arab Secularism v. Islamic Fundamentalism
slide47
Zionism
  • Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
  • Bazaar
  • Suqs
  • Minarets
  • Muezzin
slide48
9th Millennium BCE:
    • Beginnings of Agriculture
    • First Domestication of Animals
      • Animal Husbandry
    • Circa 8350 BCE: Jericho founded
  • 7th Millennium BCE:
    • Pottery appears
  • 6th Millennium BCE:
    • Irrigation begins
    • Wheel and plough invented
slide49
5th Millennium BCE:
    • Sumerian writing begins
  • 4th Millennium BCE:
    • World’s first nation (Egypt) founded
    • Sahara desertification begins
    • Potters wheel developed
    • Sail developed in Egypt
  • 3rd Millennium BCE:
    • Pyramid building (Pyramids/Ziggurats)
    • Bronze Age
slide50
2nd Millennium BCE:
    • Beginning of Iron Age
    • Judaism begins
    • Cana’an dominated by Israelites
    • Fall of Troy
    • Assyrian Empire
    • Rise of the Hittites
slide51
1st Millennium BCE:
    • Decline of Egypt
    • Cyrus the Great conquers Babylon
      • Persian Empire is born
    • Hellenic Empire rises and falls
    • Phoenicians spread phonetic alphabet
slide52
1st Millennium CE:
  • Beginning of Christianity and Islam
  • Diaspora of the Jews
  • Rise and Fall of Roman Empire
  • Islamic Conquest of Middle East and Africa
  • Algebra developed
slide53
Balfour Declaration, 1917
  • The Holocaust, 1935-1945
  • British Mandate of Palestine
  • 14 May 1948: Israel declares independence
  • 15 May 1948: Arab countries declare war on Israel
  • Suez War, 1956
  • The Six-Day War, 1967
  • Yom Kippur War, 1973
slide54
Camp David Accords, 1978
  • Lebanon Invasion, 1982
  • The First Intifada, 1987
  • The Oslo Accords, 1993
  • Israel and Jordan sign peace treaty, 1994
  • Israeli withdrawal from Gaza Strip, 2005
slide55

Section 1

The Arabian Peninsula

• The Arabian Peninsula is heavily influenced by the religious principles of Islam.

• Oil production dominates the economy of the region.

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slide56

The Arabian Peninsula

Islam Changes Desert Culture

Modern Nations of the Subregion

• Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia

• Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen

Town and Desert

• Bedouin nomads moved from oasis to oasis, built strong family ties

- fought with other families, developed fighting skills

• Fighting skills helped spread new monotheistic religion of Islam

- religion based on teachings of founder, the Prophet Muhammad

- Muhammad lived in Mecca, Islam’s holiest city

Continued . . .

NEXT

slide57

continuedIslam Changes Desert Culture

Islam Brings a New Culture

• The Five Pillars are required of all Muslims; create common culture

• Faith—all believers must testify:

- “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah”

• Prayer—pray facing Mecca five times a day;mosque—place of worship

• Charity—give money to the less fortunate

• Fasting—in the holy month of Ramadan, don’t eat, drink during day

• Pilgrimage—all Muslims should make hajj to Mecca once in their life

Continued . . .

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slide58

continuedIslam Changes Desert Culture

The Spread of Islam

• Armies of Bedouin fighters move across desert

- conquer desert lands, put Muslim leaders in control

- spread Islamic teachings, Arabic language and culture

• Muslim armies spread across Asia, Africa, Europe

- by Middle Ages, large area of world is Muslim controlled

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slide59

Governments Change Hands

Colonial Powers Take Control

• Muslim governments were theocratic—religious leaders were in control

- still true in some modern nations, such as Iran

• In late 1600, Muslim nations weaken

- Britain, France control most of region after WWI, fall of Ottomans

- colonial value: Suez Canal is vital link; oil discovered (1932)

• Abdul al-Aziz Ibn Saud takes control of most of Arabian Peninsula

- becomes Saudi Arabia in 1932

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slide60

Oil Dominates the Economy

OPEC

•Oil is principle resource of economy, makes region globally important

- source of almost all of nations’ export money, GNP

• In 1960, oil-producing nations form economic group

- OPEC—Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

- coordinate petroleum-selling policies, control worldwide oil prices

- includes Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Iran, Iraq

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slide61

Modern Arabic Life

The Change to Urban Life

•Rapid development as technology undermines traditional lifestyles

- trucks replace camels; malls replace marketplaces

• Villagers, farmers, nomads move into cities

- 25% urban in 1960; 58% by 1990s; estimated 70% by 2015

- Saudi population 83% urban

• Oil jobs require skilled workers educational systems can’t provide

- foreign workers brought in

1

Continued . . .

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slide62

continuedModern Arabic Life

Religious Duties Shape Lives

• Women often cover their heads, faces with scarf, veil

- women’s roles are slowly expanding: more are educated, working

• Prayers performed dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, before bed

- attend mosque services on Fridays

• Fasting in Ramadan reinforces spirituality, self-control, humility

- ‘Id al-Fitr marks end of Ramadan with gifts, dinners, charity

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slide63

Section 2

The Eastern Mediterranean

• The holy places of three religions are found in this subregion.

• There is a great deal of political tension among nations in this subregion.

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slide64

The Eastern Mediterranean

Religious Holy Places

Jewish Presence

• Jerusalem is a holy city to all three major monotheistic religions

• Jerusalem is capital of Israel; center of modern, ancient homeland

• Temple Mount in old city housed earliest temples

- King Solomon’s First Temple

- Second Temple built in 538 B.C

• Today Jews pray at Western Wall (Wailing Wall)

- sole remainder of Second Temple (destroyed by Romans in A.D. 70)

Continued . . .

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slide65

continuedReligious Holy Places

Christian Heritage

• Jerusalem is sacred site of Jesus’ crucifixion

- nearby towns, villages were important in Jesus’ life

• Christians visit Mount of Olives, Church of Holy Sepulchre

• In Middle Ages, they fought Crusades to regain lands from Muslims

- Muslims eventually regained control of the area

- They maintained control until establishment of Israel in 1948

Continued . . .

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slide66

continuedReligious Holy Places

Islamic Sacred Sites

• Jerusalem is third most holy Muslim city after Mecca, Medina

• Dome of the Rock—shrine where it’s believed Muhammad rose to heaven

- Jews believe it’s site where Abraham prepared to sacrifice Isaac

• Dome and Al-Aqsa mosque are located on Temple Mount by Western Wall

- close proximity of holy sites fosters Jewish-Muslim clashes

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slide67

A History of Unrest

The Legacy of Colonialism

• Ottoman Empire ruled region from 1520 to 1922, but weakened

• Britain, France got lands after WWI defeat of Ottomans, Germany

- France took Lebanon, Syria; Britain took modern Jordan, Israel

• Both supposed to rule only until areas are ready for independence

- France intentionally stoked religious tensions between groups

- Lebanon became independent in 1943, Syria in 1946

Continued . . .

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slide68

continuedA History of Unrest

British Control Palestine

• Zionism—19th-century movement for a Jewish homeland in Palestine

- Jews buy land, begin settling

• After WWI, British control area; Arabs, Jews cooperate

- German persecution increases number of Jewish immigrants

- Arabs begin to resist Jewish state

• Area is divided: Transjordan is ruled by Arab government and British

- Palestine is ruled by British with Arab, Jewish local governments

Continued . . .

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slide69

continuedA History of Unrest

Creating the State of Israel

• After WWII, many Jewish Holocaust survivors settle in Palestine

- UN divides Palestine into two states: one Jewish, one Arab

• Israel is created in 1948; repels invasion by Arab states

• Palestinian Arabs flee

- Palestinian land on West Bank, Gaza Strip is controlled by Israel

• Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) uses politics, military to:

- regain land in, and return of refugees to, Israel

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slide70

Modernizing Economies

Refugees and Civil Wars

• Creation of Israel produces numerous Palestinian refugees

- today they number 3.6 million across the region; some in camps

- many struggle for food, shelter, jobs; lack education

- Jordan has the largest Palestinian refugee population

• Civil wars in Lebanon, Cyprus cause economic problems

- Lebanon war in 1975–76 led to Israel invading Lebanon in 1982

Continued . . .

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slide71

continuedModernizing Economies

Modern Infrastructure

• Region’s nations have potential for development

- climate for citrus crops, sites for tourism

- location connects them to markets in Europe, Asia, Africa

• Many nations lack infrastructure to support growing economy

- irrigation is needed for agriculture

- communication systems, power sources needed for industry

• Israel has built sophisticated industries, like computer software

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slide72

Section 3

The Northeast

  • • The nations in this subregion are Muslim but most are not part of the Arab culture.
  • The nations in the Northeast range from developed to very poorly developed.

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slide73

The Northeast

A Blend of Cultures

Nations of the Region

• Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan

Early Civilizations

• Iraq’s Fertile Crescent between Tigris, Euphrates a cultural hearth

- early civilizations include Sumer, Babylonia, Assyria, Chaldea

- all built empires in Mesopotamia, the “land between the rivers”

• Hittite empire covered modern Turkey, introduced iron weapons

• Persian empire developed in what is now Iran

- introduced innovations in governmental organization

Continued . . .

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slide74

continuedA Blend of Cultures

Ethnic and Religious Variety

• Subregion’s ethnic groups include Turks, Kurds, Persians, Assyrians

- languages (Turkish, Farsi) are different from Arabic

• All groups (except Assyrians) are Islamic, but tensions exist

- after Muhammad’s death, Muslims divided into two branches

- 83% of all Muslims are Sunni; most Iranians are Shi’ite

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slide75

Clashes Over Land

Homelands and Refugees

• Kurds—stateless ethnic group located in Turkey, Iraq, Iran

- promised homeland after WWI, but never got it

• Iran has world’s largest refugee population

- Iraqi Shi’ites flee persecution

- decades of war create Afghan refugees

Control of Oil Fields

• In 1980s, Iran, Iraq fight war over Persian Gulf oil fields

• Iraq invades Kuwait in 1990; driven out in Persian Gulf War

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slide77

Clashes Over Leadership

Overthrow of the Taliban

• Taliban—fundamentalist Muslim political group rules Afghanistan

- protects Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda terrorist network

• After 9–11 attacks, U.S. attacks Afghanistan in October 2001

- Operation Enduring Freedom targets terrorist assets, infrastructure

- Taliban removed from power by March 2002

- Hamid Karzai heads transitional government

- Osama bin Laden and some Taliban leaders escape

Continued . . .

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slide79

continuedClashes Over Leadership

Overthrow of Saddam Hussein

• After Gulf War, UN orders Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein to disarm

- ordered to destroy chemical, biological weapons

• President George W. Bush turns focus to Iraq in 2002

- Bush believes Hussein has weapons of mass destruction

- U.S., U.K. attack Iraq in Operation Iraqi Freedom, March 2003

- major fighting ends in May 2003; Hussein captured in December 2003

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slide81

Reforming Economies

Making Progress

• Turkey is developing water resources, hydroelectric plants

- supply energy, boost cotton and other agricultural production

- only nation in region that produces steel

- location between Europe, Asia is ideal for trade

• Changes in Iran’s government bring economic progress

- current government supports change

- oil money funds development

Continued . . .

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slide82

continuedReforming Economies

Progress Interrupted

• Economic sanctions on Iraq after Gulf War limited trade

- created shortages of food, medicine

• Afghanistan is one of world’s poorest nations

- most people farm or herd animals

- mineral resources remain undeveloped due to civil wars, turmoil

- post-Taliban transitional government is rebuilding economy

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slide83

Modern and Traditional Life

Division and Struggle

• Region’s nations face internal struggles

- some seek modern lifestyle, others want to preserve traditions

• In Afghanistan, Taliban had strict rules of behavior

- new government is restoring civil liberties, improving education

• Taliban-like groups in Turkey, Iran, Iraq have not gained power

- differences have led to conflicts, political problems

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slide84

Today’s Issues:

Southwest Asia

Oil and religion have shaped modern Southwest Asia, but they’ve also brought the region lasting, often devastating conflicts and challenges.

Kurdish refugees from Iraq travel through Turkey.

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slide85

Section 1

Population Relocation

  • • Economic growth brings foreign workers to the region.
  • Political factors have shifted the region’s population.

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slide86

Population Relocation

New Industry Requires More Workers

The Oil Boom Changes Economies and Lives

• Life in Southwest Asia doesn’t change much from 1100–1900

- some people live in villages, cities; others live nomadic lives

• Petroleum, natural gas discovered in early 20th century

- Western oil companies leased land, brought in technology, workers

• Oil profits bring wealth to countries, urbanization begins

- road construction makes cities accessible

- thousands migrate to cities for jobs

Continued . . .

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slide87

continuedNew Industry Requires More Workers

Foreign Workers

• Oil creates so many jobs that local workers can’t fill them all

- oil companies employ “guest workers” from South, East Asia

- mostly unskilled laborers; do jobs native peoples find unacceptable

• In places, immigrant works outnumber native workers

- 90% of United Arab Emirates’ workers are immigrants

Continued . . .

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slide88

continuedNew Industry Requires More Workers

Problems of Guest Workers

• Cultural differences exist between guest workers, employers

- misunderstandings over customs can bring severe penalties

• Often, workers live in special districts away from Arab population

- some are abandoned or don’t get wages for months

• Concerns over intolerance, violence toward workers

• Some fear immigrants weaken countries’ national identities

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slide89

Political Refugees Face Challenges

Stateless Nation

• After WWI, land intended for Kurds was kept by Turkey, Iraq, Syria

• Kurds a stateless nation—people without land to legally occupy

• Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria try unsuccessfully to absorb Kurds

- Kurds resist governments’ control, are forcibly moved

• Iraq forces Kurdish migration, uses chemical weapons on settlements

- In 2000, 70,000 Kurds are displaced, many forced into camps

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continuedPolitical Refugees Face Challenges

Palestinian Refugees

• Palestinians—Arabs and descendents who lived in Palestine—displaced

- stateless nation; living in relocation camps in Israel, elsewhere

• When Israel is created, Palestinian Arabs are promised a homeland

- during Israeli war of 1948, Israel occupies some of those lands

• As many as 1 million Palestinians flee Israel, become refugees

- 52 camps in Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, West Bank, Gaza Strip

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continuedPolitical Refugees Face Challenges

Palestinian Refugees

• West Bank—strip of land on west side of Jordan River

- originally controlled by Jordan, but lost to Israel in 1967

• Gaza Strip—along Mediterranean Sea northeast of Sinai Peninsula

- occupied by Israel in 1967

• Refugees unable to return to Israeli areas they claim

- 8.2 million worldwide by 2005

• Their demand to return to Palestine is at heart of many regional conflicts

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Section 2

Oil Wealth Fuels Change

  • • Oil wealth brings political and economic changes to the region.
  • To achieve a diversified economy, countries need to improve infrastructure and resource use.

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Oil Wealth Fuels Change

Meeting the Global Demand

The Pros and Cons of “Black Gold”

• Oil (“black gold”) fuels world industries, transportation, economies

- strategic commodity—important resource nations will fight over

• Region has 64% of world’s oil deposits, 34% of natural gas reserves

- by 2020 will provide 50% of world demand

• Oil prices rise, fall unpredictably; revenue not assured

- makes steady economic growth difficult; nations need to diversify

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Using Oil Wealth to Diversify

Modernizing the Infrastructure

• Saudi Arabia builds roads, irrigation networks, agricultural storage

- also, desalinization plants to remove salt from seawater

• Other nations build airports, malls, ports

- efforts are not always well planned

- UAE builds four international airports that are underused

• Nations have made an effort to build information technology systems

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Developing Resources

• Nations seek to diversify, develop non-oil resources, agriculture

- governments build dams, dig wells to tap underground reservoirs

•Saudi Arabia uses oil profits to improve agriculture, water supplies

- by 1985 it met its demand for dairy, meat, poultry, eggs

- by 1992 it produced enough grain for own needs, some export

• Oman revives copper, chromium industries, reduces oil dependence

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Human Resources

• Human resources—skills and talents of a nation’s people

- nations must invest in people, including women

- must provide education, technology training

- Kuwait has free education through university level

- Kuwait also pays fees, expenses if students study abroad

•Many societies have strict rules about women’s roles

- hard to get education or jobs; shortages create opportunities

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