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East Asia in the Late Traditional Era

18. East Asia in the Late Traditional Era. East Asia in the Late Traditional Era. Late Imperial China Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1644–1911) Dynasties Japan Warring States Era (1467–1600) ‏ Tokugawa Era (1600–1868) ‏ Korea and Vietnam Korea Vietnam.

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East Asia in the Late Traditional Era

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  1. 18 East Asia in the Late Traditional Era

  2. East Asia in the Late Traditional Era • Late Imperial China • Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1644–1911) Dynasties • Japan • Warring States Era (1467–1600)‏ • Tokugawa Era (1600–1868)‏ • Korea and Vietnam • Korea • Vietnam

  3. Seventeenth-century screen painting of a Shintō river festival

  4. Introduction • East Asian countries shared many cultural elements • But differed in institutions and history

  5. Introduction (cont’d) • Common influence of Confucianism • China and Japan were furthest apart • Chinese dynastic cycle continued in Ming and Qing • Japan’s history was closer in some ways to that of Europe • Korea and Vietnam closer to China

  6. Global Perspective: East Asia in the Late Traditional Era • What features of Japan or China, other than those mentioned above, bear on their lack of progress from commerce to industry? What other factors presented in the chapters on Europe are relevant? • Why was Tokugawa Japan more open to Western learning than Qing China? Was population a plus, a minus, or a factor that did not matter?

  7. Late Imperial ChinaMing (1368–1644) and Qing (1644–1911) Dynasties

  8. Ming and Qing Dynasties:Land and People • Ming-Qing continuities: longest stretch of good government in Chinese history • China’s population doubled from 1368 to 1644 • 60 million to 125 million • 410 million by mid-nineteenth century

  9. Ming and Qing Dynasties:Land and People (cont’d) • Increase in food supply • Rice and new crops such as maize • Yangzi valley was densely populated • Ming cash crops – silk and cotton

  10. Third Commercial Revolution • Expansion between 1500 and 1800 • Followed First (Han) and Secont (Song) commercial revolutions • Commerce expanded in mid-sixteenth century • Population surge • Relaxation of government controls

  11. A porcelain enameled plate

  12. Third Commercial Revolution (cont’d) • Stimulus of imported silver • Favorable balance of trade • Urban growth – mainly market towns • Women still restricted by Confucian edicts • Spread of footbinding

  13. Figure 18–1. A Bound Foot

  14. Ming-Qing China:The Emperor • Strong emperors • More direct control • Secretariat abolished • Personal government • Despotic power • Forbidden Palace, Beijing • Rebuilt • Centered on emperor’s rule

  15. The Thin Horse Market

  16. The Thin Horse Market

  17. Ming-Qing China:Bureaucracy • Similar to Tang, Song times • Manchus strongly centralize • Revenues restored • But fixed • Emperors lose out as production rises • Officials, later called “mandarins” • Competition to enter civil service • Examinations

  18. Gentry • More important than in the past • Between bureaucracy and village • District magistrate • Lowest level • Over population of up to 300,000 by late Ming • “Law of avoidance” – placed outside of home province • Urban, not rural, not landed

  19. Pattern of Manchu Rule • Manchu (Qing) takeover was smooth • Short transition • Manchus were already Sinicized • Manchus adopted institutions to maintain themselves as an ethnically elite group • Manchu troops segregated

  20. Examination Stalls

  21. Pattern of Manchu Rule (cont’d) • Dyarchy • For each key post, one Chinese, one Manchu • Able Rulers • Kangxi: model emperor, patron of culture and learning, encouraged trade • Qianlong: Kangxi’s grandson, prosperous rule, but corruption at end

  22. Emperor Qianlong

  23. Chronology: Late Imperial China

  24. Ming Foreign Relations • Vigorous expansion under early Ming • Tribute system • Naval exploration under Zheng He • First armada – 62 major ships, 28,000 sailors • Half century earlier than Portuguese voyages • Chief threat came from Mongols

  25. Ming Foreign Relations (cont’d) • Also threat from Japanese and Chinese pirates • Ming invasion of Korea in late sixteenth century

  26. Map 18–1. The Ming Empire and the Voyages of Zheng

  27. Giraffe with Attendant

  28. Qing Foreign Relations, Culture • Manchu takeover in 1644 • Threat still came from north and northwest • Conquest of Tibet • Increasing European contact • Jesuits appeal to Kangxi • Christianity later banned • Macartney mission to China

  29. Jesuit Missionary

  30. Ming-Qing Culture • Increasingly turned inward • Reaction to Buddhism under Song • Ming-Qing antipathy to Mongol rule • Gu Yanwu • Example of intellectual refusing to serve Manchu • Philology • Works only rediscovered in late 1800s

  31. Ming-Qing Culture (cont’d) • Traditional arts favored: painting, calligraphy, poetry, philosophy

  32. JapanWarring States Era (1467–1600)

  33. Warring States Era (1467-1600) • War of All Against All • Foot Soldier Revolution • Foreign Relations and Trade

  34. Japan – Warring States Era • Warring States Era (1467-1600) • Ashikaga equilibrium was precarious • Warfare among the daimyo • “The strong eat and the weak become the meat” • Unification in stages • Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598) • Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616)

  35. Foot Soldier Revolution • Foot soldier replaced the aristocratic mounted warrior as the backbone of the military • Warfare and society changed as well • Daimyo took all land revenue • Multigeniture to unigeniture

  36. Foot Soldier Revolution (cont’d) • Rise of larger armies – 100,000s • New weapons • Thrusting spear • Musket, from Portuguese

  37. Daimyo Castle

  38. Societal Transformation • In some respects, Japan resembled postfeudal Europe • Most of the military class were soldiers, not aristocrats • Military class had reached 7 to 8% of population • Recruitment of village warriors added significantly to power of daimyo • Commercial growth continued through the dark decades of Warring States period

  39. Chronology: Warring States Japan and the Era of Unification (1467-1600)‏

  40. Foreign Relations and Trade • Increased trade with China • Shogun appointed “King of Japan” • “Tribute missions” sent to China • Progress of Japanese crafts • “Vermilion-seal trade” after Hideyoshi

  41. Arrival of the Portuguese in Japan

  42. Foreign Relations and Trade (cont’d) • Seclusion • Trade limited to small community of Chinese merchants in Nagasaki • Japanese could not leave Japan • Large ship construction prohibited • Arrival of European ships – Portuguese

  43. Christianity • Jesuit missionaries • Jesuits directed efforts towards Samurai • 300,000 converts by 1600 • Christianity seen as new Buddhist sect • Cosmic Buddha of Shingon and Christian God seen as similar • Also Bodhisattva Kannon and Virgin Mary

  44. Christianity (cont’d) • Hideyoshi banned Christianity in 1597 • Persecutions under Tokugawa Ieyasu • Nagasaki uprising in 1637 – 37,000 died

  45. Tokugawa Era (1600–1868)

  46. Tokugawa Era (1600–1868) • Political Engineering and Economic Growth during the Seventeenth Century • Hideyoshi’s Rule • Establishment of Tokugawa Rule • The Seventeenth-Century Economy

  47. Tokugawa Era (1600–1868) (cont'd) • Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries • The Forty-Seven Ronin • Cycles of Reform • Bureaucratization • The Later Tokugawa Economy • Languages of East Asia

  48. Tokugawa Era (1600–1868) (cont'd) • Hideyoshi’s rule • Problem of dealing with armed peasantry • Hideyoshi ordered “sword hunt” in 1588 • Hideyoshi moved to freeze society • Marrying within own class • Clothing styles dictated • Surveys of lands • Standardization of weights and measures • Made systematic land tax possible

  49. “Picture-treading” Plaque

  50. Tokugawa Leyasu • Final unification in 1600 • Confiscated lands of defeated enemies • Rewarded vassals and allies • Reshuffling of domains • Regulation of legal codes • Hostage system

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