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The Rise of Islam. A brief history. Five Pillars of Islam. There is no God except Allah, & Muhammad is his prophet. Pray & face Mecca five times a day. Fasting & self control during the month of Ramadan (based on a lunar calendar, so it can be any time of the year).

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the rise of islam

The Rise of Islam

A brief history

five pillars of islam
Five Pillars of Islam
  • There is no God except Allah, & Muhammad is his prophet.
  • Pray & face Mecca five times a day.
  • Fasting & self control during the month of Ramadan (based on a lunar calendar, so it can be any time of the year).
  • Give 2.5% of your money to the poor.
  • Make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once if you can.
slide3

Same

  • Islam means to “submit to God peacefully.” If you do this, you’re called a Muslim.
  • Quran is their Holy Book. The angel Gabriel gave it to Muhammad. Written in Arabic.
  • No images in mosques.
  • Allah created humans, angels & jinn.
  • Man may marry up to 4 women.
  • Christians & Jews are called “People of the Book.”
  • Jesus was a prophet, born from a virgin, is coming back, but did not die on the cross. He was taken up to heaven. He was not the Son of God.
  • Abraham’s chosen son was Ishmael, not Isaac.
  • Good deeds lead you to heaven; bad deeds to hell.
  • Holiest places: Mecca, Medina (Saudi Arabia) & Dome of the Rock (Jerusalem).
  • Shiite differences
  • 200 million
  • Mainly in Iran, Iraq, Yemen & Lebanon.
  • Muhammad did leave a successor.
  • Mujtahids are spiritual leaders.

Sunni differences

  • 1.2 billion
  • Found in all Muslim countries.
  • Muhammad didn’t leave a successor.
  • Imaams are spiritual leaders.
jihad
Jihad
  • Muslims believed in 'jihad' – a holy war to spread Islam over all the world.
  • "Fight those who do not believe in Allah, nor in the latter day, nor do they prohibit what Allah & His Messenger have prohibited, nor follow the religion of truth, out of those who have been given the Book, until they pay the tax in acknowledgment of superiority & they are in a state of subjection.“ Surah 9:29.
  • “When the Qur'an is read, listen to it with attention, & hold your peace: that you may receive mercy.” 7:204.
  • At its height, the Muslim world stretched from Spain to India.
muhammad
Muhammad
  • 570 ADMuhammad is born in Mecca. He comes from a noble family.
  • 610 ADAccording to Muslim belief, at the age of 40, Muhammad is visited by the angel Gabriel while on retreat in a cave near Mecca. The angel recites to him the first revelations of the Quran and informs him that he is God's prophet.
  • After this, he leads a small army & conquers & converts the polytheists Arabs to Islam aka

convert by the sword.

Arabic people

islamic empire
Islamic Empire
  • 622 AD Muhammad moves to Medina & founds the first Islamic country (darkest green).
  • By 732, the Islamic empire stretched from the borders of India, Persia & the Middle East, along the north coast of Africa, & into Spain.
  • Most of the areas that the Romans controlled converted from Christianity to Islam, although there are still Christian minorities in Islamic countries i.e. Coptic Christians in Egypt.
caliphate
Caliphate
  • Most of the Muslim world was ruled by a Caliphate. He was the supreme political & religious leader of the area he ruled. A democracy or republic were foreign ideas.
  • There were several dynasties, each with their own line of Caliphates & each ruling from a different city, i.e. Cairo, Baghdad, etc.
  • The Ottoman Empire’s leader was called a Sultan.
conquests
Conquests
  • The Arabs conquered Egypt, the Holy Land & North Africa from the Byzantine Empire. Arabic language & alphabet replaced the Greek, Egyptian & Berber languages & alphabet. This is why the Greek alphabet is only used in Greece today.
  • The Umayyad conquered North Africa, Spain, & the Indus Valley. There is still religious tension between the Hindus & Muslims that live in the Indus Valley & India today.
  • 732 AD Muslims are defeated at Potiers (near the city of Tours) in France by Charles “the Hammer” Martel. This kept Europe Christian.
  • Besides Spain, all of these areas today have either a minority Muslim population or are almost totally Muslim. Spain was re-conquered over a period of several hundred years by the Christian west.
conquests in africa
Conquests in Africa
  • 1000 AD Islam continues to spread through the continent of Africa, including Nigeria, which served as a trading center between the northern & central regions of Africa.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa is still a mixture of Muslim, Christian & indigenous beliefs.
  • Timbuktu was a center of trade in modern day Mali. Islam spread between the Sahara & sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Ghana was a small kingdom southwest of the Sahara desert that brought Muslim traders through in a vast Saharan trade network of gold, ivory & salt. These routes are still used today.
conquests1
Conquests
  • In the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks moved westward from central Asia. They defeated the Byzantine army at the Battle of Manzikert (1071) & gradually conquered Asia Minor, which is modern-day Turkey.
  • They captured Constantinople in 1453 & renamed it Istanbul.
  • They also conquered the Balkans, starting with the Battle of Kosovo (1389). This includes the Serbs, Albanians, Greeks, etc.
  • Later empires would spread Islam to the “Stans,” Indonesia, the Philippines & other areas of Asia & Africa.
crusades
Crusades
  • A series of wars in the 12th & 13th centuries by the Catholic West to re-conquer the Holy Land from the Muslims. They were commissioned by the Pope.
  • There were 8 crusades, but the 3rd one is the most famous with King Richard of England.
  • There were a few small kingdoms established, but they didn’t last long.
  • The west never really united with the Byzantine Empire to defeat the Muslims.
trade
Trade
  • Muslim Arab traders & warriors set up trading posts & settlements throughout the Sahara, down the east coast of Africa, into India & even in south-east Asia.
  • After the Mongols converted to Islam, they established a number of Muslim states in Iran, Central Asia & Russia. The Mongol state in Russia was called the Golden Horde. This spread Islamic ideas & culture. There is still religious tension between the Russians & the Muslims that live in Russia.
trade1
Trade
  • Muslim traders travelled as far as South Africa, China & Russia.
  • They traded in fine quality goods like silk & paper from China, cotton & ivory from India & Africa, carpets from the Middle East, & spices from all over the world.
  • One of the first universities in the world was in Egypt in AD970.
  • Al-Fazari invented the astrolabe to calculate latitude while navigating.
cities
Cities
  • Every Muslim town had at least one mosque with a muezzin, who called people to prayer five times a day.
  • Islam taught that it was wrong to draw human beings in religious art, so Muslim artists used beautiful patterns & writing in mosques and on copies of the Quran.
  • They were usually tolerant of Jews & Christians, but required them to pay a special tax for being non-Muslims.
culture
Culture
  • Many western musical instruments were copied from Muslim instruments, including the lute, the guitar & the violin. Spanish flamenco dancing is supposed to have been influenced by the rhythms of Arabic music.
  • Hijab: veil that covers the face & shoulders of women.
  • Burqa: a cover/veil that furthers covers women in public.
  • Turbins: cloth wound headgear worn by men.
  • Food: pork & alcohol are forbidden. They eat the foods associated with where they live.
the rise of islam1

The Rise of Islam

A brief history

five pillars of islam1
Five Pillars of Islam

1. There is no God except , & is his

.

2. & face Mecca times a day.

3. & self control during the month of (based on acalendar, so it can be any time of the year).

4. Give % of your money to the poor.

5. Make a to Mecca at least if you can.

slide18

Same

  • Islam means to “ to God peacefully.” If you do this, you’re called a Muslim.
  • is their Holy Book. The angel gave it to Muhammad. Written in .
  • No in mosques.
  • Allah created & jinn.
  • Man may marry up to women.
  • Christians & Jews are called “People of the .”
  • Jesus was a prophet, born from a virgin, is coming back, but did noton the cross. He was taken up to heaven. He was the Son of God.
  • ’s chosen son was
  • ,not .
  • deeds lead you to heaven; bad deeds to hell.
  • Holiest places: , Medina (Saudi Arabia) & Dome of the (Jerusalem).
  • Shiite differences
  • 200 million
  • Mainly in , Iraq, Yemen & Lebanon.
  • Muhammad leave a successor.
  • are spiritual leaders.

Sunni differences

  • 1.2 billion
  • Found in Muslim countries.
  • Muhammad

leave a successor.

  • are spiritual leaders.
jihad1
Jihad
  • Muslims believed in 'jihad' – a to spread over all the world.
  • " those who do not in Allah, nor in the latter day, nor do they prohibit what Allah & His Messenger have prohibited, nor follow the religion of truth, out of those who have been given the Book, until they pay the in acknowledgment of

& they are in a state of .“ Surah 9:29.

  • “When the Qur'an is , to it with attention, & hold your peace: that you may receive .” 7:204.
  • At its height, the Muslim world stretched from to .
muhammad1
Muhammad
  • 570 AD is born in . He comes from a noble family.
  • AD According to Muslim belief, at the age of 40, Muhammad is visited by the

Gabriel while on retreat in a cave near Mecca. The angel to him the first revelations of the & informs him that he is God's prophet.

  • After this, he leads a small && converts the Arabs to Islam aka convert by the .

Arabic people

islamic empire1
Islamic Empire
  • 622 AD Muhammad moves to & founds the first Islamic (darkest green).
  • By 732, the Islamic empire stretched from the borders of , & the Middle , along the north coast of , & into .
  • Most of the areas that thecontrolled converted from Christianity to Islam, although there are still Christian in Islamic countries i.e. Christians in .
caliphate1
Caliphate
  • Most of the Muslim world was ruled by a Caliphate. He was the supreme & leader of the area he ruled. A democracy or republic were ideas.
  • There were several , each with their own line of Caliphates & each ruling from a different, i.e. , , etc.
  • The Empire’s leader was called a .
conquests2
Conquests
  • The conquered Egypt, the Holy Land & North Africa from the Byzantine Empire.

language & alphabet replaced the , & Berber languages & . This is why the Greek is only used in today.

  • The Umayyad conquered North Africa, Spain, & the Indus Valley. There is still religious between the & that live in the Indus Valley & India today.
  • 732 AD Muslims are at Potiers (near the city of Tours) in France by Charles “the Hammer” Martel. This kept Europe .
  • Besides Spain, all of these areas today have either a minoritypopulation or are almost totally Muslim. Spain was over a period of several hundred years by the Christian .
conquests in africa1
Conquests in Africa
  • AD Islam continues to spread through the continent of Africa, including , which served as a center between the northern & central regions of Africa.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa is still a of Muslim, Christian & indigenous .
  • was a center ofin modern day Mali. Islam spread between the Sahara & sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Ghana was a small kingdom southwest of the desert that brought Muslim traders through in a vast Saharan trade of , ivory & . These routes are still today.
conquests3
Conquests
  • In the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks moved westward from Asia. They defeated the army at the Battle of (1071) & gradually Asia Minor, which is modern-day .
  • They captured in & renamed it .
  • They also conquered the , starting with the Battle of (1389). This includes the , Albanians, , etc.
  • Later empires would spread Islam to the “,” , the

& other areas of Asia & Africa.

crusades1
Crusades
  • A series of in the 12th & 13th centuries by the Catholic to re-conquer the Holy Land from the Muslims. They were commissioned by the .
  • There were crusades, but the rd one is the most famous with King

of .

  • There were a few small kingdoms established, but they didn’t

long.

  • The west never really with the Empire to defeat the .
trade2
Trade
  • Muslim Arab traders & warriors set up trading & throughout the , down the east coast of , into

& even in south-east .

  • After the converted to Islam, they established a number of Muslim states in Iran,Asia & . The Mongol state in Russia was called the Golden Horde. This spread Islamic ideas & culture. There is still religion between the Russians & the Muslims that in Russia.
trade3
Trade
  • Muslim traders travelled as far as , & Russia.
  • They traded in fine quality goods like silk & paper from , cotton & ivory from & , carpets from the Middle , & spices from all over the .
  • One of the first in the world was in in AD970.
  • Al-Fazari invented the to calculatewhile navigating.
cities1
Cities
  • Every Muslim town had at least one with a muezzin, who called people to

five times a day.

  • Islam taught that it was wrong to human beings in religious , so Muslim artists used beautiful & writing in mosques and on copies of the Quran.
  • They were usually of & , but required them to pay a special for being -Muslims.
culture1
Culture
  • Manymusical instruments were copied from Muslim instruments, including the , the & the

. Spanishdancing is supposed to have been influenced by the rhythms of music.

  • : veil that covers the face & shoulders of women.
  • rqa: a cover/veil that furthers covers women in .
  • : cloth wound headgear worn by .
  • Food: & are forbidden. They eat the foods associated with where they .