The Britons were Celts. The Celts arrived in Briton around 517 BC. Celtic kings (Britons) ruled Briton before the Roman invasion around 100 BC and after the Roman rule in Briton until the arrival of the Anglo Saxons around 449. • The history of Britain began with Roman rule. In 55–54 BC, Roman general Gaius Julius Caesar organised two expeditions to Britain.
language • The Britons were speakers of the Brythonic (or Brittonic) languages. Brythonic languages are believed to have been spoken on the entire island of Britain • After the Roman conquest of Britain, the British language adopted some words from Latin; hence it is sometimes termed Romano-British in this period.
Gaelic • Anglo Saxon • Anglo Norman • 1356 English
The Romans had recently conquered Gaul, and the commander believed the Britons had been supporting the Gauls. • Caesar did not conquer any territory, but instead brought Britain under the political influence of Rome. • Trade relations soon developed, and taxes on trade brought more money to Rome than any conquest.
By AD 300, almost everyone in Britannia was 'Roman', legally and culturally, even though of indigenous descent and still mostly speaking 'Celtic' dialects. • The very first religion in the island was Pagan. • language
Germanic peoples from Europe—the Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes—arrived in Britain in massive numbers between the 5th and 7th centuries AD • These groups invaded and overwhelmed Roman Britain, choosing to settle on the plains of England because of the mild climate and good soils.
These people tended to be tall, blond, and blue-eyed. • Their language became the foundation of the basic, short, everyday words in modern English.
Native Britons fought the great flood of Germanic peoples, and many Britons who survived fled west to the hill country. • These refugees and native Britons were Celts who had absorbed the earliest peoples on the island, the prehistoric people known as Iberians. • Celts tended to be shorter than Anglo-Saxons and have rounder heads. • Most had darker hair, but a strikingly high percentage of Celts had red hair.
After the Anglo-Saxon conquest, the Celts remained in Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and the West Country (the southwestern peninsula of Britain) • The new Anglo Saxon invaders were not organised centrally, as the Romans had been, or as the Normans would be. • They slowly colonised northwards and westwards, pushing the native Celts to the fringes of Britain.
Roman Britain was replaced by Anglo Saxon Britain, with the Celtic peoples remaining in Cornwall, Wales and Scotland. • The Anglo Saxon areas eventually combined into kingdoms, and by 850 AD the country had three competing kingdoms
The three kingdoms were Mercia, Northumbria and Wessex • They were not only were competing between themselves, but they were also under sustained attack from Viking raids. • by 875 the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria had succumbed. Only Wessex remained as Anglo Saxon. • VIKINGS
The Vikings attack Wessex in 878, and the Saxon king, Alfred had to flee. • However he was able to regroup and counter attack. • His efforts and those later of his son and grandsons, gradually pushed the Vikings northwards and eventually into the sea.
On Ethelred's death in 1016, the Viking leader Cnut was effectively ruling England. • But on Cnut's death, the country collapsed into a number of competing Earldoms under a weak king, Edward the Confessor.
when Edward the Confessor died in 1066, Harold claimed the throne. • So the Vikings saw a chance to regain a foothold in Britain, 1066. • The army of King Harold of England fought against the invaders at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. The Vikings were defeated, but the battle left the Anglo-Saxons in a weakened state. • While celebrating his victory,Herold learnt that William of Normandy had landed in southern England.
Within 13 days Harold had marched his army some 240 miles from Yorkshire to Sussex, where the Normans were camped near Hastings. • The ensuing Battle of Hastings was won by the Normans who were fresh, and had better archers and cavalry. • Harold died with an arrow through his eye. William was crowned William I in London on Christmas Day 1066
In 1066 the Normans, French-speaking invaders of Norse origin, conquered England • William the Conqueror • Normandy
The Norman Conquest is of paramount importance in the history of Britain, • connecting Britain more closely with the continent by decreasing Scandinavian influence and introducing a Norman French aristocracy. • Britain became a powerful monarchy with an elaborate system of government, and the English language grew exponentially after the French language was adopted.
William built many castels across the whole country. • The uniqueness of the Norman conquest in British history is that not only did the ruler change, but also the whole of the ruling class changes, • and there was even a new language. (Anglo Norman)
The English nobility lost their lands • and the new landowners built castles like Warwick and Windsor that survive to this day. • By the time William died in 1087 around 100 major castles had been built.
The other major legacy of William's reign is the Domesday Book. • William wished to know the existing and potential value of his new kingdom. • Surveyors were sent out across the whole country and their report was the massive Domesday Book which noted land down to individual landholdings
Feodal State System starts • Life of Lords and Barons • Life of serfs • Cleaning habits: They met the soap during the crusades.
Eating Habits: Using knife when eating was considered chivalry. • Toilet habits: up to 1800’s English like French used feather. Or used a pot. And emptied the pots through windows. It was the reason why parfume industry has developed
class distinction • KING • ARCBISHOP • KNIGHTS • BARONS • CLERGYMAN • PEOPLE
Becoming a knight • There were only a few ways in which a person could become a knight. The first way was the normal course of action for the son of a noble: • When a boy was eight years old, he was sent to the neighboring castle where he was trained as a page. • The boy was usually the son of a knight or of a member of the aristocracy.
He spent most of his time strengthening his body, wrestling and riding horses. • He also learned how to fight with a spear and a sword. • He practiced against a wooden dummie called a quintain.
It was essentially a heavy sack or dummie in the form of a human. • It was hung on a wooden pole along with a shield. • The young page had to hit the shield in its center. When hit, the whole structure would spin around and around. • The page had to maneuver away quickly without getting hit. The young man was also taught more civilized topics. • He would be taught to read and write by a schoolmaster. He could also be taught some Latin and French. • The lady of the castle taught the page to sing and dance and how to behave in the king’s court.
At the age of fifteen or sixteen, a boy became a squire in service to a knight. • His duties included dressing the knight in the morning, serving all of the knight’s meals, caring for the knight’s horse, and cleaning the knight’s armor and weapons. • He followed the knight to tournaments and assisted his lord on the battlefield.
A squire also prepared himself by learning how to handle a sword and lance while wearing forty pounds of armor and riding a horse. • When he was about twenty, a squire could become a knight after proving himself worthy. • A lord would agree to knight him in a dubbing ceremony. • The night before the ceremony, the squire would dress in a white tunic and red robes. • He would then fast and pray all night for the purification of his soul.
The chaplain would bless the future knight's sword and then lay it on the chapel or church's altar. • Before dawn, he took a bath to show that he was pure, and he dressed in his best clothes. • When dawn came, the priest would hear the young man's confession, a Catholic contrition rite. • The squire would then eat breakfast. • Soon the dubbing ceremony began.
The outdoor ceremony took place in front of family, friends, and nobility. • The squire knelt in front of the lord, who tapped the squire lightly on each shoulder with his sword and proclaimed him a knight. • This was symbolic of what occurred in earlier times. • In the earlier middle ages, the person doing the dubbing would actually hit the squire forcefully, knocking him over. • After the dubbing, a great feast followed with music and dancing.
Armor • A knight was armed and armored to the teeth. • He had so much armor and weapons that he depended on his squire to keep his armor and weapons clean and in good working condition. • At first the armor was made of small metal rings called chain mail. • A knight wore a linen shirt and a pair of pants as well as heavy woolen pads underneath the metal-ringed tunic.
A suit of chain mail could have more than 200,000 rings. • However, chain mail was heavy, uncomfortable, and difficult to move in. • As time passed, knights covered their bodies with plates of metal. • Plates covered their chests, back, arms, and legs.
A bucket like helmet protected the knight’s head and had a hinged metal visor to cover his face. • Suits of armor were hot, uncomfortable, and heavy to wear. • A suit of armor weighed between forty and sixty pounds. • Some knights even protected their horses in armor.
Weapons • A knight needed a shield to hold in front of himself during battle. • Shields were made of either wood or metal. • Knights decorated their shields with their family emblem or crest and the family motto.
A knight'’s weapon was his sword, which was about thirty-two pounds. • It was worn on his left side in a case fastened around his waist. • A knife was worn on the knight’s right side. • Knights used other weapons in combat as well. • A lance was a long spear used in jousts. • Metal axes, battle hammers, and maces were also used to defeat the enemy.
Pads worn under the armor to help ease the weight. They were called gambesons
WHAT DOES A KNIGHT DO? • He travels • He is attached to a king, lord. • He is dedicated to the king forever • He serves the king or lord with all his power • He always goes to a quest